Software Validation


Engineers and scientists increasingly rely on software developed by independent professionals or specialized third-party firms. Consequently, before committing to a product, essential questions must be answered regarding the accuracy, validation, competence, documentation, support as well as updates of any engineering scientific software package.

Is the software package:

  • accurate, and how can this be verified?
  • well-documented?
  • adequately supported (e.g. regular updates & enhancements, state-of-the-art technical support, and prompt provision of fixes or workarounds in case of a bug or other issue)?

Reliable and accurate engineering and scientific software must have an adequate validation report, and be supported with sufficient documentation. So while all the above questions are important, the first is crucial for the safety and integrity of any engineering study or design, and the second addresses a fundamental requirement for ensuring an adequate understanding of the subject and usage of the technical software.

SES's engineers and scientists conduct their own R&D and are continuously engaged in providing advanced R&D consulting services to our industry partners. This unique combination allows SES to develop and maintain state‑of‑the‑art software that meets and even exceeds the requirements of the industries we serve. SES's scientific publications, in the most reputable journals, are just one indication of the favorable reputation SES has earned in the scientific community. For more than four decades, SES has been an undisputed leader and a pioneer in the fields of grounding, lightning and electromagnetic interference. The following describes the work and related documentation which are completed to ensure that our CDEGS software complies with the most stringent requirements related to the aforementioned questions, with particular emphasis on the first two.

For over forty years, our software has been subject to extensive scientific validation, using field tests and comparisons with analytical and published research results. This validation, which continues today, is conducted by SES and independent researchers, and is documented in hundreds of technical papers published in peer-reviewed international journals (list of Technical Publications).

Each computation module is tested to ensure that it produces accurate results for multiple cases documented internally at SES, and for several fundamental cases which are made available to users on digital media. Prior to every new release, these cases are retested, and the results are validated by comparing them to previously obtained results, which in turn were validated in preceding years via the following four well-documented mechanisms.

The following technical publications and R&D reports contain detailed descriptions of scientific validation studies using data generated with CDEGS software, as well as results obtained with other computer models. Essentially, computed results produced by the CDEGS computation modules are compared to known results from computer models that are based on completely different techniques. The comparisons often involve complex cases for which no exact analytical results exist.

  • 1. H. Zhao, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Analysis of Grounding Systems Including Freely Oriented Plates of Arbitrary Shape in Multilayer Soils", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 51, No. 6, November / December 2015, pp. 5189 - 5197. (SES Pub#289)
  • 2. S. Ladan, A. Aghabarati, R. Moini, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Induced Disturbances by High Voltage Transmission Lines on Nearby Stationary Vehicles", International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Ottawa, Canada, July 25 to 29, 2016. (SES Pub#288)
  • 3. A. Aghabarati, R. Moini, S. Ladan, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Shielding Properties of Spherical Polyhedral Structures Generated by Conducting Wires and Metallic Surfaces", IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Ottawa, Canada, July 25 to 29, 2016. (SES Pub#287)
  • 4. A. Hajiaboli, S. Fortin and F. Dawalibi, "Numerical Techniques for the Analysis of HVDC Sea Electrodes", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 51, No. 6, November/December 2015, p. 5075 - 5181. (SES Pub#286)
  • 5. A. Hajiaboli, S. Fortin, F. P. Dawalibi, P. Zhao and A. Ngoly, "Analysis of Grounding Systems in the Vicinity of Hemi-Spheroidal Heterogeneities", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 51, No. 6, November/December 2015, p. 5070 - 5077. (SES Pub#285)
  • 6. S. Fortin, N. Mitskevitch and F. Dawalibi, "Analysis of Grounding Systems in Horizontal Multilayer Soils Containing Finite Heterogeneities", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 51, No. 6, November / December 2015, p. 5095-5100. (SES Pub#284)
  • 7. F. Grange, T. Gourdan, P. Blasquez, D. Leschi and F.P. Dawalibi, "A New Methodology of Cranes Modeling for ITER Grounding Safety Assessment", International Symposium on Electromagnetic, Compatibility, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 1-4, 2014. (SES Pub#280)
  • 8. S. Journet, F. Grange, S. Fortin and F.P. Dawalibi, "Conception d’un système de mise à la terre d’un parc éolien en utilisant des méthodes et techniques de Simulation intégrées", 17ème Colloque International et Exposition sur la Compatibilité Electromagnétique, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 30 juin - 03 juillet, 2014. (SES Pub#279)
  • 9. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi, N. Mitskevitch, M-A Joyal and S. Tee, "Realistic and Accurate Model for Analyzing Substation Grounding Systems Buried in Various Backfill Material", The 6th IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference 2014 (IEEE PES APPEEC 2014), Hong Kong, December 7 - 10, 2014. (SES Pub#277)
  • 10. Y. Yang, J. Ma, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Interference Due to HVDC Transmission Line Faults", The 5th China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED), Shanghai China, September 5-6, 2012. (SES Pub#267)
  • 11. S. Baron, R. Southey, Q.Xie, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Shielding Design Study for a Large Plant Using a 3-D Graphics-Based Lightning Interception Surface Rendering and Intersection Method", 31st International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Vienna, Austria, September 2 - 7, 2012. (SES Pub#265)
  • 12. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Tee and S. P. Upadhyay, "Part II - Comparisons of Computational Techniques Used in the Design and Analysis of Electrical Grounding Systems", HV & LV Grounding Practices by Central Power Research Institute of India, Bangalore, India, November 11 - 12, 2011. (SES Pub#263)
  • 13. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Tee and S. P. Upadhyay, "Part I - Comparisons of Computational Techniques Used in the Design and Analysis of Electrical Grounding Systems", HV & LV Grounding Practices by Central Power Research Institute of India, Bangalore, India, November 11 - 12, 2011. (SES Pub#262)
  • 14. H. Zhao, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Calculation of the 'Field Intensification Factors' using Method of Moments for Lightning Protection", 7th Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning (APL 2011), Chengdu, China, November 1 - 4, 2011. (SES Pub#259)
  • 15. Q. Xie, S. Baron, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Fast 3D Direct Lightning Shielding Protection Computation Methods", 7th Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning (APL 2011), Chengdu, China, November 1 - 4, 2011. (SES Pub#258)
  • 16. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Effect of Site Improvement on the Performance of Substation Grounding Systems", 2011 International Conference on Power and Energy Engineering (CPEE2011), Shanghai, China, October 28 - 30, 2011. (SES Pub#255)
  • 17. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi and H. Zhou, "Recent Advances in the Modeling and Mitigation of AC Interference along Transmission Lines Right of Ways", NACE Corrosion Shanghai 2011 Conference & Expo, Shanghai, China, October 12 - 14, 2011. (SES Pub#253)
  • 18. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi and J. Ma, "Advanced Grounding System Analysis for a Large Substation Accounting for Aboveground Bus Bars", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE 2011), Hong Kong, July 10 - 14, 2011. (SES Pub#250)
  • 19. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Tee, S. Fortin and N. Grignon, "Inadequacies of the Industry-Standard IEEE C37-99-2000 Concerning Grounding Neutrals of Shunt Capacitors in High-Voltage Substations", IEEE Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 26, No. 2, April 2011, pp. 782-789. (SES Pub#249)
  • 20. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi and R. Raymond, "EMC Analysis and Design Considerations of Railway Sharing the Same Corridor with Power Lines", The 18th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Taipei, Taiwan, October 25-28, 2010. (SES Pub#247)
  • 21. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Fortin and Y. Li, "Transient Response of Shielded Substations Hit Directly by a Lightning Strike", The 18th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Taipei, Taiwan, October 25-28, 2010. (SES Pub#246)
  • 22. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Validation of a Method to Remove Shield Wires’ Contribution In Ground Impedance Measurements", The 18th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Taipei, Taiwan, October 25-28, 2010. (SES Pub#245)
  • 23. W. Ruan, R. Southey, S. Tee and F. P. Dawalibi, "A Parametric Analysis of Power Line Structure Response to Lightning Strikes", The 18th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Taipei, Taiwan, October 25-28, 2010. (SES Pub#244)
  • 24. J. Liu and F.P. Dawalibi, "Wind Turbine Farm Network Grounding Design Using Integrated Simulation Methods and Techniques", 2010 International Conference on Future Power and Energy Engineering (ICFPEE), Shenzhen, China, June 26 - 27, 2010. (SES Pub#242)
  • 25. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Grounding Analysis of a Solar Power Generation Facility", Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), Chengdu, China, March 28-31, 2010. (SES Pub#241)
  • 26. X. W. Zhao, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Safety Evaluation of Vehicles Parked Under High Voltage Power Lines", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2009 (ICEE), Shenyang, China, July 5 - 9, 2009. (SES Pub#239)
  • 27. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma and S. Fortin, "Fault Current Distribution in Transmission and Distribution Systems with Shield Wires, Neutral Wires and Cable Sheaths", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2009 (ICEE), Shenyang, China, July 5 - 9, 2009. (SES Pub#237)
  • 28. S. Tee and F. P. Dawalibi, "A Realistic and Accurate Model for Calculating Foot Resistance Above Grounding Systems Buried in Layered Earth", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2009 (ICEE), Shenyang, China, July 5 - 9, 2009. (SES Pub#235)
  • 29. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Computerized Analysis of Grounding Plates in Multilayer Soils", IEEE Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2009, pp. 650-655. (SES Pub#234)
  • 30. S. Fortin, Y. Yang, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Fields of Energized Conductors in Multilayer Medium with Recursive Methodology", Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC 2009), Wuhan, China, March 28 - 31, 2009. (SES Pub#233)
  • 31. H. Zhao, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Distortion of the Potential around HVDC Transmission Lines Caused by Corona Space Charge", Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC 2009), Wuhan, China, March 28 - 31, 2009. (SES Pub#232)
  • 32. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, S. Fortin and J. Ma, "Automated Time-Domain Analysis of Transmission and Distribution Networks Using Circuit Models", The 17th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Macau, October 27 - 31, 2008. (SES Pub#230)
  • 33. J. Ma, J. Liu and F. P. Dawalibi, "Application of Advanced Simulation Methods and Design Techniques to Interconnected Grounding Systems", The 17th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI), Macau, October 27 - 31, 2008. (SES Pub#228)
  • 34. H. Zhao, S. Fortin and F. P. Dawalibi, "Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Impedance of Aboveground and Buried Wires in Multilayer Horizontal Soil Model Environments", The 4th IASTED Asian Conference on Power and Energy Systems (AsiaPES), Langkawi, Malaysia, April 2 - 4, 2008. (SES Pub#225)
  • 35. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Grounding System Design for a Large Power Plant", The 4th IASTED Asian Conference on Power and Energy Systems (AsiaPES), Langkawi, Malaysia, April 2 - 4, 2008. (SES Pub#222)
  • 36. Y. Yang, S. Fortin, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "GMR of Stranded Multizone Conductors", The 4th IASTED Asian Conference on Power and Energy Systems (AsiaPES), Langkawi, Malaysia, April 2 - 4, 2008. (SES Pub#221)
  • 37. J. Liu and F. P. Dawalibi, "Zone of Influence around Electrical Installations Subjected to Ground Faults", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#220)
  • 38. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi and J. Ma, "Electromagnetic Interference of Transmission Lines on Nearby Railways Accounting for the Rail Track Arresters", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#218)
  • 39. F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma and J. Liu, "Equivalent Inductive and Conductive Models of Rail Ballast Resistance in Electromagnetic Interference Studies", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#217)
  • 40. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Effects of Ground Plates Used in Power System Grounding", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#216)
  • 41. S. Fortin, Y. Yang and F. P. Dawalibi, "Frequency Behavior of Impedance of Large Grounding Systems in Horizontal Multilayer Soils", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#215)
  • 42. Y. Li and F. P. Dawalibi, "Effects of Distribution System and Metallic Infrastructure on the Electromagnetic Field Level Surrounding Power Lines", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2007 (ICEE), Hong Kong, July 8 - 12, 2007. (SES Pub#212)
  • 43. W. Ruan, R. Southey, S. Tee, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Recent Advances in the Modeling and Mitigation of AC Interference in Pipelines", Corrosion/2007 NACE International Conference & Expo, Nashville, Tennessee, March 11 -15, 2007. (SES Pub#211)
  • 44. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Tee, S. Fortin and N. Grignon, "Effectiveness of the Industry Standard Peninsula Technique for Grounding the Neutrals of Shunt Capacitors in High Voltage Substations", IEEE PES Power Systems Conference & Exposition (PSCE), Atlanta, Georgio, U.S.A, October 29 - November 1, 2006. (SES Pub#210)
  • 45. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Grounding Analysis of a Large Electric Power Station", International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON2006), Chongqing, China, October 22-26, 2006. (SES Pub#208)
  • 46. N. Mitskevitch, F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma and J. Liu, "GPR Zone of Influence of a Typical Electric Power Network", International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON2006), Chongqing, China, October 22-26, 2006. (SES Pub#207)
  • 47. S. Fortin, H. Zhao, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "A New Approach to Calculate the Ionized Field of HVDC Transmission Lines in the Space and on the Earth Surface", International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON2006), Chongqing, China, October 22-26, 2006. (SES Pub#205)
  • 48. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Recent Advances in Electromagnetic Interference Analysis in Common Corridors", The 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics (CEEM), Dalian, China, August 1-4, 2006. (SES Pub#204)
  • 49. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma and N. Mitskevitch, "Modeling Techniques for Analyzing Electromagnetic Interference Caused by High Voltage Power Lines to Neighboring Communication Cables", The 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics (CEEM), Dalian, China, August 1-4, 2006. (SES Pub#203)
  • 50. Y. Li, S, Fortin, D. Mankar and F. P. Dawalibi, "An Efficient and Automated Method for Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis along Congested Right-of-Way", The 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics (CEEM), Dalian, China, August 1-4, 2006. (SES Pub#202)
  • 51. S. Fortin, Y. Yang, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Fields of Energized Conductors in Multilayer Soils", The 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Environmental Electromagnetics (CEEM), Dalian, China, August 1-4, 2006. (SES Pub#201)
  • 52. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Efficient and Automated Grounding System Design for Electrical Power System", The 5th International Conference on Power Transmission & Distribution Technology, Beijing, China, October 12 - 14, 2005. (SES Pub#197)
  • 53. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "On the Applications of IEEE Std. 80 in the Analysis of Substation Grounding", The 5th International Conference on Power Transmission & Distribution Technology, Beijing, China, October 12 - 14, 2005. (SES Pub#196)
  • 54. Y. Yang, S. Fortin, J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Analysis of the Electrical Environmental Impact of Typical HVAC Transmission Lines", The 5th International Conference on Power Transmission & Distribution Technology, Beijing, China, October 12 - 14, 2005. (SES Pub#195)
  • 55. J. Liu, R.D. Southey and F.P. Dawalibi, "Application of Advanced Grounding Design Techniques to Plant Grounding Systems", IEEE/PES T&D 2005 Asia Pacific, Dalian, China, August 14 - 18, 2005. (SES Pub#192)
  • 56. J. Liu, J. Ma, R. D. Southey and F.P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Interference Analysis and Mitigation for Pipelines near Power Lines", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), Kunming, China, July 10 - 14, 2005. (SES Pub#187)
  • 57. J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi and S. Tee, "Efficient Safety Analysis of Power Plant Fence Grounding", The International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), Kunming, China, July 10 - 14, 2005. (SES Pub#186)
  • 58. R. Southey, J. Liu, F.P. Dawalibi and Y. Li, "AC Interference of Transmission Lines on Railways: Influence of Track-Connected Equipment", AREMA 2005 C&S Technical Conference, Omaha, Nebraska, May 24, 2005. (SES Pub#183)
  • 59. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Grounding Analysis of A Substation Connected to A Nearby Power Plant", Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Krabi, Thailand, April 18 - 20, 2005. (SES Pub#181)
  • 60. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Integrated Method in Electromagnetic Interference Studies", Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Krabi, Thailand, April 18 - 20, 2005. (SES Pub#179)
  • 61. R. D. Southey, F. P. Dawalibi, Y. Li, and W. Ruan, "Increasing the Cost-Effectiveness of AC Interference Mitigation Designs With Integrated Electromagnetic Field Modeling", Corrosion/2004 NACE International Conference, Houston, April 4 - 6, 2005. (SES Pub#193)
  • 62. C. Li, X. Wei, Y. Li and F. P. Dawalibi, "A Parametric Analysis of Fault Current Division between Overhead Wires and Substation Grounding Systems", Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, November 28 - December 1, 2004, pp. 48-53. (SES Pub#175)
  • 63. J. Liu and F. P. Dawalibi, "Detailed Parametric Analysis of Grounding System Performance in Two-Layer Soil Structures", Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, November 28 - December 1, 2004, pp. 370-375. (SES Pub#177)
  • 64. F. P. Dawalibi, N. Mitskevitch and S. Fortin, "Computation Stability of Grounding Systems in Soils Containing Heterogeneous Volumes", Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, November 28 - December 1, 2004, pp. 364-369. (SES Pub#176)
  • 65. S. Fortin, W. Ruan and F. P. Dawalibi, "Comparison of Computational Methods for the Design and Analysis of Power System Grounding: Parametric Analysis", Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, November 28 - December 1, 2004, pp. 357-363. (SES Pub#174)
  • 66. J. Liu and F. Dawalibi, "Database and Rule Based Automated Grounding System Design", The 15th Conference on Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI) Shanghai, China, October 18-22, 2004. (SES Pub#172)
  • 67. R. D. Southey and W. Ruan, "Application of Electromagnetic Field Theory to Measure Correct Grounding System Impedance: A Parametric Analysis", The 15th Conference on Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI) Shanghai, China, October 18-22, 2004. (SES Pub#171)
  • 68. Y. Li and F.P. Dawalibi, "Effects of Current Unbalance and Transmission Line Configuration on the Interference Levels Induced on Nearby Pipelines", Corrosion/2004 NACE International Conference, New Orleans, March 28 to April 1, 2004. (SES Pub#170)
  • 69. F. P. Dawalibi and N. Mitskevitch, "Analysis and validation of the performance of grounding systems buried in soil structures containing heterogeneous volumes", Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, EuroPES 2003, Marbella, Spain, Sept. 3-5, 2003, pp. 700-705. (SES Pub#168)
  • 70. J. Ma and F.P. Dawalibi, "Correlation between worst case safety conditions and soil resistivity under power system fault conditions", Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, EuroPES 2003, Marbella, Spain, Sept. 3-5, 2003, pp. 695-699. (SES Pub#167)
  • 71. S. Tee and F. P. Dawalibi, "Feasibility of electrical separation of proximate grounding systems as a function of soil structure", Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, EuroPES 2003, Marbella, Spain, Sept. 3-5, 2003, pp. 690-694. (SES Pub#166)
  • 72. J. Liu and F. P. Dawalibi, "Accurate simulation of AC interference caused by electrical power lines: a parametric analysis", Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, EuroPES 2003, Marbella, Spain, Sept. 3-5, 2003, pp. 341-346. (SES Pub#164)
  • 73. R. D. Southey, W. Ruan, F. P. Dawalibi, and S. Fortin, "Estimating AC Mitigation Requirements for Pipelines Installed in High Voltage AC Corridors: Fault Conditions", Paper No. 03698, Corrosion 2003 NACE International Conference, San Diego, California, March 17-21, 2003. (SES Pub#163)
  • 74. Y. Li and F. P. Dawalibi, "A Parametric Analysis of Ac Interference Caused By High Voltage Power Lines on Neighboring Railroad Tracks", AREMA, Washington, D.C., September 2002. (SES Pub#162)
  • 75. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Effects of Conductor Angle between Transmission Lines and Neighboring Utilities on the Accuracy of Inductive Interference Computations", Proceedings of the IEEE-PES/CSEE International Conference on Power System Technology, PowerCon 2002, Kunming, China, October 13-17, 2002, Vol. 4, pp. 2477-2481. (SES Pub#160)
  • 76. W. Ruan, J. Liu, J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi, and R. D. Southey, "Performance of HVDC Ground Electrode in Various Soil Structures", Proceedings of the IEEE-PES/CSEE International Conference on Power System Technology, PowerCon 2002, Kunming, China, October 13-17, 2002, Vol. 2, pp. 962-968. (SES Pub#158)
  • 77. J. Liu, W. Ruan, S. Fortin, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Electromagnetic Fields near High Voltage Electrical Power Lines: A Parametric Analysis", Proceedings of the IEEE-PES/CSEE International Conference on Power System Technology, PowerCon 2002, Kunming, China, October 13-17, 2002, Vol. 1, pp. 401-408. (SES Pub#157)
  • 78. Y. Yang, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "An Efficient Method For Computing the Magnetic Field Generated by Transmission Lines with Static Wires", Proceedings of the IEEE-PES/CSEE International Conference on Power System Technology, PowerCon 2002, Kunming, China, October 13-17, 2002, Vol. 2, pp. 871-875. (SES Pub#156)
  • 79. S. Nikolovski, T. Barié, and W. Ruan, "Induced Voltages on De-Energized Transmission Line Capacitively and Inductively Coupled to Energized Line", EMC EUROPE 2002 Symposium, Italy, Sorrento, Sept. 9-13, 2002. (SES Pub#155)
  • 80. S. Nikolovski, H. Glavas, and S. Fortin, "Simulation and Analysis of a Lightning Strike to GSM Base Transmission Station Tower", EMC EUROPE 2002 Symposium, Sorrento, Italy, Sept. 9-13, 2002. (SES Pub#154)
  • 81. J. Liu, F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma, and R. D. Southey, "HVDC Advanced Analysis Methods for Grounding Design and DC Interference Mitigation Techniques", EMC 2002, Beijing, May 21-24, 2002. (SES Pub#152)
  • 82. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Latest Analytical and Computational Techniques in Electromagnetic Interference", Electrical Equipment, Vol. 2, no. 4, Dec. 2001, pp. 29-33 (in Chinese). (SES Pub#149)
  • 83. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Latest Analytical and Computational Techniques in Grounding", Electrical Equipment, Vol. 2, special issue, Oct. 2001, pp. 38-44 (in Chinese). (SES Pub#148)
  • 84. Y. Li and F. P. Dawalibi, "Right-of-Way – AC Interference between Power Lines and Railways", Task Force Meeting of AAR, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, September 25, 2000 (this is a power point presentation only). (SES Pub#147)
  • 85. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, and R. D. Southey, "Automated Analysis of Electromagnetic Interference between Power Lines and Neighboring Railways", AREMA 2001 Annual Conference and Exposition, Chicago, USA, September 10-13, 2001. (SES Pub#145)
  • 86. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Analysis of Grounding Systems in Soils with Finite Volumes of Different Resistivities", IEEE Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 2002, pp. 596-602. (SES Pub#143)
  • 87. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Influence of Inductive Coupling between Leads on Ground Impedance Measurements Using the Fall-of-Potential Method", IEEE Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 16, No. 4, Oct. 2001, pp. 739-743. (SES Pub#142)
  • 88. F. P. Dawalibi, W. Ruan, S. Fortin, J. Ma, and W. K. Daily, "Computation of Power Line Structure Surge Impedances Using the Electromagnetic Field Method", Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, Oct. 28 - Nov. 2, 2001. (SES Pub#141)
  • 89. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Effects of the Length and Angle of Conductors on the Computation Accuracy of Inductive Interference", Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, Oct. 28 - Nov. 2, 2001. (SES Pub#140)
  • 90. Y. Yang, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Computation of Cable Parameters for Pipe-Type Cables with Arbitrary Pipe Thicknesses", Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, Oct. 28 - Nov. 2, 2001. (SES Pub#139)
  • 91. W. Ruan, J. Ma, S. Fortin, F. P. Dawalibi, and E. J. Middleton, "Optimum and Economical Deployment Method of Surge Arresters on Distribution Lines for Insulation Failure Due to Lightning - An Electromagnetic Field Compield Computation Analysis", Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS'2001), Wuhan, P.R. China, September 20-24, 2001. (SES Pub#138)
  • 92. W. Ruan, J. Ma, S. Fortin, and F. P. Dawalibi, and E. J. Middleton, "Optimum and Economical Deployment Method of Surge Arresters on Distribution Lines for Insulation Failure Due to Lightning - A Circuit Model Analysis", Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE'2001), Xian, China, July 22-26, 2001. (SES Pub#136)
  • 93. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Integrated Analysis Software for Electromagnetic Interference between Power Lines and Neighboring Utilities", Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE'2001), Xian, China, July 22-26, 2001. (SES Pub#135)
  • 94. Y. Yang, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "The Effects of Low Resistivity Cylindrically Shaped Soil Volumes on Grounding Systems", Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE'2001), Xian,China, July 22-26, 2001. (SES Pub#134)
  • 95. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Analysis of Grounding Systems in Soils with Cylindrical Soil Volumes", IEEE/PES Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 15, No. 3, July 2000, pp. 913-918. (SES Pub#127)
  • 96. W. Ruan, R. D. Southey, F. P. Dawalibi, D. Czarnomski, and G. Farra, "Effects of Circulating Current from Local Generators in Grounding Study of a Large Power Plant", IEEE/IAS Workshop on Electrical Safety in Industry, New Delhi, April 14-15, 2000. (SES Pub#126)
  • 97. Y. Li, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Safety of Pipelines in Close Proximity to Electric Transmission Lines", IEEE/IAS Workshop on Electrical Safety in Industry, New Delhi, April 14-15, 2000. (SES Pub#125)
  • 98. N. Mitskevitch, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Study of Grounding System Safety Aspects in the Presence of Finite Heterogeneities", IEEE/IAS Workshop on Electrical Safety in Industry, New Delhi, April 14-15, 2000. (SES Pub#124)
  • 99. W. Ruan, F. P. Dawalibi, S. Fortin, and J. Ma, "Computation of Overvoltages Using Electromagnetic Field Approach during Back-To-Back Capacitor Switching Operations in a Substation", Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago, April 10-12, 2000, pp. 218-223. (SES Pub#123)
  • 100. J. Ma, N. Mitskevitch, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Performance Evaluation of Grounding Systems in Soils with Finite Volumes of Different Resistivities", Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago, April 10-12, 2000, pp. 338-342. (SES Pub#122)
  • 101. J. Ma, Y. Yang, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Practical Examples of Grounding Systems Located in Cylindrical Soils", Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago, April 10-12, 2000, pp. 333-337. (SES Pub#121)
  • 102. Y. Li, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Electromagnetic Interference Caused by a Power System Network and a Neighboring Pipeline", Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago, April 10-12, 2000, pp. 311-316. (SES Pub#120)
  • 103. W. Ruan, F. P. Dawalibi, and J. Ma, "Study of Transient Ground Potential Rise in Gas-Insulated Substations during Fault Conditions Using Electromagnetic Field and Circuit Theory Approaches", Proceedings of theThird IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy System, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 8-10, 1999, pp. 326-332. (SES Pub#117)
  • 104. G. Yu, J. Ma, and F. P. Dawalibi, "Computation of Return Current Through Neutral Wires in Grounding Analysis", Proceedings of theThird IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy System, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 8-10, 1999, pp. 455-459. (SES Pub#116)
  • 105. S. Nikolovski and S. Fortin, "Frequency Domain Analysis of 110/35 kV Transformer Station Grounding System Subject to Lightning Strike", Proceedings of the IEEE PowerTech '99 Conference, Budapest, Hungary, August 29 - September 2, 1999. (SES Pub#115)
  • 106. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Effects of Inductive Coupling between Leads in Ground Impedance Measurements Using the Fall-of-Potential Method", Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Transmission & Distribution Conference, New Orleans, April 11-16, 1999, pp. 266-271. (SES Pub#112)
  • 107. F. P. Dawalibi, J. Ma, and Y. Li, "Mechanisms of Electromagnetic Interference Between Electrical Networks and Neighboring Metallic Utilities", Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Vol. 61-I, Chicago, April 6-8, 1999, pp. 150-155. (SES Pub#110)
  • 108. S. Nikolovski, G. Radoslav, and S. Fortin, "Forward and Backward Fast Fourier Transformation in Lightning Transient Study Analysis", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Operational Research KOI'98, Rovinj, Croatia, September 30 - October 2, 1998, pp. 340-358. (SES Pub#109)
  • 109. S. Nikolovski and S. Fortin, "Lightning Transient Response of 400 kV Transmission Tower with Associated Grounding System", EMC 1998 Roma International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Rome, Italy, September 14, 1998. (SES Pub#107)
  • 110. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Study of Influence of buried Metallic Structures on Soil Resistivity Measurements", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 2, April 1998, pp. 356-363. (SES Pub#104)
  • 111. R. D. Southey, F. P. Dawalibi, and P. Hotte, "Distribution Line Safety Grounding: Parametric Analysis", 1998 IEEE 8th International Conference on Transmission & Distribution Construction, Operation & Live-Line Maintenance Proceedings, Orlando, Florida, April 26-30, 1998. (SES Pub#103)
  • 112. J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi, W. Ruan R. D. Southey, R. Waddell, and J. K. Choi, "Measurement and Interpretation of Ground Impedances of Substation Grounding Systems Connected to Ground Wires and Metallic Pipes", Proceedingsofthe 60th Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Vol. 60-I, Chicago, April 14-16, 1998, pp. 490-493. (SES Pub#102)
  • 113. J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi, and P. E. da F. Freire, "Integrated Software for the Design and Analysis of Grounding Systems", 1998 International Conference on Grounding and Earthing, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, April12-16, 1998. (SES Pub#101)
  • 114. R. D. Southey and F. P. Dawalibi, "Computer Modeling of AC Interference Problems for the Most Cost Effective Solutions", 53rd Annual Conference in Corrosion, NACE 98, California, March 22-27, 1998. (SES Pub#98)
  • 115. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Fortin, W. Ruan, J. Ma, and S. G. Lodwig, "Analysis of Electric Transients during Capacitor Switching Operations in a Substation", Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Vol-59, Chicago, April 1-3, 1997, pp. 185-190. (SES Pub#93)
  • 116. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Study of Influence of Buried Metallic Structures on Soil Resistivity Measurements", IEEE Transactions on PWRD, Vol. 13, No. 2, April 1998, pp. 756-765. (SES Pub#91)
  • 117. F. P. Dawalibi, S. Fortin, J. Ma, "Computation of Induced Voltages on Electric Distribution Lines Due to an Indirect Lightning Strike", Proceedings of the 13th International Wroclaw Symposium and Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wroclaw, Poland, June 25-28, 1996, pp. 471-475. (SES Pub#90)
  • 118. J. Ma, W. Ruan, F. P. Dawalibi, R. Southey, "Study of Inductive Coupling Between Leads in Soil Resistivity Measurements", 13th International Wroclaw Symposium and Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wroclaw (Poland), June 25-28, 1996, pp. 561-565. (SES Pub#89)
  • 119. J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi, W. Ruan, "Analysis and Computation of Induced Voltages on Communication Cables Due to a Lighning Strike on a Parallel Transmission Line", 13th International Wroclaw Symposium and Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wroclaw (Poland), June 25-28, 1996, pp. 499-503. (SES Pub#88)
  • 120. W. H. Lee, F. P. Dawalibi, W. Ruan, S. Fortin, "Performance of Gas-Insulated Substations and Associated Grounding Networks During Fault and Transient Conditions", 58th Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago (Illinois), April 9-11, 1996, pp. 1585-1590. (SES Pub#87)
  • 121. J. Ma and F. P. Dawalibi, "Hazardous potential differences in extensive grounding systems during ground faults", 58th Annual Meeting of the American Power Conference, Chicago (Illinois), April 9-11, 1996, pp. 1585-1590. (SES Pub#85)
  • 122. F. Dawalibi, W. Xiong, J. Ma, "Transient Performance of Substation Structures and Associated Grounding Systems", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 31, No. 3, May/June 1995, pp. 520-527. (SES Pub#80)
  • 123. J. Ma, F. P. Dawalibi, "Induced Effects on Parallel Circuits from Lightning Strokes on Transmission Lines", Proceedings of International Conference on Electromagnetic Compatibility, ICEMC ‘95 KUL, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 11-13, 1995, pp. 106-111. (SES Pub#76)
  • 124. A. Selby, F. Dawalibi, "Determination of Current Distribution in Energized Conductors for the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1994, pp. 1069-1078. (SES Pub#73)
  • 125. F. Dawalibi, A. Selby, "Electromagnetic Fields of Energized Conductors", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 3, July 1993, pp. 1275-1284. (SES Pub#62)

  • Validation Presented by Others
  • 126. Peng Qian, Yao Xiao, Liu Ping, Liu Fan, Su Jie, School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, SiChuan, Chengdu, China, "Analysis on Grounding Resistance affected by Heterogeneous Soil", Presented at the 2011 Third International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation.
  • 127. P.H. Pretorius, Trans-Africa Projects and K.R. Hubbard, Eskom Holdings Limited, "Assessment Of Electric Field Exposure In A 756 KV Open Air Substation - A Case Study", Presented at the Cigré 2009, 6th Southern Africa Regional Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
  • 128. A A Burger, P H Pretorius , I Ferreira, N Mahatho, "On The Electric Field Performance Of An Overhead Conductor Real Time Monitoring System (RETMOS II)", Presented at the Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Cape Town, South Africa.
  • 129. Konstantinos Kopsidas, Ian Cotton, "Induced Voltages On Long Aerial And Buried Pipelines Due To Transmission Line Transients", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Year: 2008, Volume 23, Issue 3 Pages 1535-1543.
  • 130. Simon M. Rowland, Member, IEEE, Konstantinos Kopsidas, Ian Cotton, "Modeling of Currents on Long strong, Dielectric Cables on HV Overhead Lines", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 2, APRIL 2007.
  • 131. Ian Cotton, Member, IEEE, Konstantinos Kopsidas and Yang Zhang, "Comparison Of Transient And Power Frequency Induced Voltages On A Pipeline Parallel To An Overhead Transmission Line", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 3, JULY 2007C. Charalambous and I. Cotton, "Influence of soil structures on corrosion performance of floating-DC transit systems", IET Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2007.
  • 132. Ian Cotton, Member, IEEE, Charalambos Charalambous, Pete Aylott, and Petra Ernst, "Stray Current Control in DC Mass Transit Systems", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 2, MARCH 2005.

Furthermore, hundreds of international scientific users who are conducting challenging research work using SES software packages provide independent verifications and validation on a continuing basis. A “Google Scholar” search using terms such as CDEGS, MultiFields, MultiGroundZ, HIFREQ, etc. will produce results showing thousands of peer-reviewed scientific publications. By clicking this link, you will bring up the results of a “Google Scholar” search for “CDEGS” in a new tab. The research described in these publications include comparisons to results obtained using experimental and alternative methods. A sample of these publications is shown below.


  • 1. New Approach for Human Exposure Assessment along a Rail Corridor. A. Oussama, F. Grange, A. Nabil, S. Journet and et al. EMC Europe 2019, Barcelona.
  • 2. A Method of Defect Diagnosis for Integrated Grounding System in High-Speed Railway,Z. He; H. Hu; W. Huang; Y. Pan; X. Li; J. Yang,"Coll. of Electr. Eng., Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Chengdu, China",IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 3. A Holistic Stray Current Assessment of Bored Tunnel Sections of DC Transit Systems,C. A. Charalambous; I. Cotton; P. Aylott; N. D. Kokkinos,"Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 4. A simulation tool to assess the lightning induced over-voltages on dc cables of photovoltaic installations,C. A. Charalambous; N. Kokkinos; N. Christofides; M. Z. A. Ab Kadir; C. Gomes,"Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 5. A Simulation Tool to Predict the Impact of Soil Topologies on Coupling Between a Light Rail System and Buried Third-Party Infrastructure,C. A. Charalambous; I. Cotton; P. Aylott,"Nat. Grid High Voltage Res. Center, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester",IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
  • 6. A space-time solution of a novel time-domain electric field integral equation,Hongxia Huang; Lin Li; Zhaonan Luo,"School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beinong Road, Beijing, 102206, China",International Conference on Computational Problem-Solving.
  • 7. A study of influencing factors about vertical grounding rods performance in two-layer soil,Shenglin Li; Guangning Wu; Xiaobin Cao; Weiming Zhou; Ruifang Li,"College of Electrical Engineering Southwest Jiaotong University Chengdou, Sichuan, 610031, China",2008 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition.
  • 8. Accuracy of the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform algorithm in grounding grid transient analysis,D. LovriŽ?; S. VujeviŽ?; P. SarajŽev,"University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ruđera Boškovića bb, HR-21000, Croatia","2010 Conference Proceedings ICECom, 20th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications".
  • 9. Aging of Polyethylene ADSS Sheath by Low Currents,S. M. Rowland; K. Kopsidas; X. Zhang,"University of Manchester, Manchester, UK",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 10. An Investigation of Earth Grid Performance Using Graphene-Coated Copper,A. J. Datta; R. Taylor; G. Will; G. Ledwich,"School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia",IEEE Access.
  • 11. Analyses of the Earthing Resistance of HV/MV Transformer Stations with Different Earth Electrode Arrangements and Soil Structures,J. Ladanyi,"Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Hungary ,2007 7th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology.
  • 12. Analysis and comparison of calculation results and measurements of dangerous potentials on earthing systems,M. Kokoru­; R. GaŽanoviŽ?; A. JusiŽ?; H. Zildóo,"International Council on Large Electric Systems, Bosnia and Herzegovina Committee of CIGRÉ, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina",2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC).
  • 13. Analysis on Grounding Resistance Affected by Heterogeneous Soil,P. Qian; Y. Xiao; L. Ping; L. Fan; S. Jie,"Sichuan Electr. Power Test & Res. Inst., Chengdu, China", 2011 Third International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation.
  • 14. Analysis on Soil Resistivity Measurement Based on CSAMT,Q. Peng; X. Yao; R. Liu; F. Liu; J. Su; G. Wu,"Sichuan Electr. Power Test & Res. Inst. ChengDu, Chengdu, China", 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference.
  • 15. Application study of flexible graphite grounding electrode in typical tower grounding grid,K. Tang; J. Ruan; D. Huang; Q. Zhan; W. Xiao; H. Li,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, P.R. China",2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE).
  • 16. Assessment of electric field exposure in a 765 kV open air substation – A case study; P.H. Pretorius, K.R. Hubbard, Paper C301, Cigré 2009, 6th Southern Africa.
  • 17. Calculation method for harmonic impedance of traction substation grounding grid,L. Zhou; Y. Chen; Z. He; Q. Qiu; J. He; Y. Liu,"School of Electric Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China", 2016 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON).
  • 18. Calculation of current distribution during direct strikes to lightning protective system,P. Wang; L. Li,"State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, CHINA",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 19. Calculation of Current Distribution in the Lightning Protective System of a Residential House,P. Wang; L. Li; V. A. Rakov,"State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China",IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.
  • 20. Calculation of Interference Voltage on the Nearby Underground Metal Pipeline due to the Grounding Fault on Overhead Transmission Lines,L. Qi; H. Yuan; L. Li; X. Cui,"State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China",IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility.
  • 21. Comparison of Lightning-Induced Current Simulations in the Time and Frequency Domains Using Different Computer Codes,K. Aniserowicz; T. Maksimowicz,"Faculty of Electrical Engineering , Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska, Poland",IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility.
  • 22. Comparison study of usage as grounding electrode between galvanized iron and copper with and without earth additive filler,F. Mahtar; A. Ramli; W. R. Wan Abdullah; M. N. Isa,"Telekom Research And Development Sendirian Berhad. Idea Tower, UPM-MTDC, Technology Incubation Center One, Lebuh Silikon, 43400, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia", 2007 Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics.
  • 23. Computation of current-division factors and assessment of earth-grid safety at 161/69 kV indoor-type and outdoor-type substations,C. H. Lee; C. N. Chang,"Dept. of Naval Mechtronic Eng., Nat. Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan","IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution".
  • 24. Computation of Electromagnetic Field of Transformer Station 110/10(20) kV Using the CDEGS software,S. Nikolovski; P. Maric; Z. Baus; B. Stefic,"Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Power System Department, Osijek, CROATIA","EUROCON 2007 - The International Conference on Computer as a Tool.
  • 25. Corona-discharge-initiated mine explosions,H. K. Sacks; T. Novak,,IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
  • 26. Design of distribution substation earth grid in high resistivity soil using CDEGS,S. D. Buba; W. F. W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; C. Gomes; J. Jasni; M. Osman,"Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Univ. Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia", 2014 IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2014).
  • 27. Dynamic Stray Current Evaluations on Cut-and-Cover Sections of DC Metro Systems,C. A. Charalambous; P. Aylott,"Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
  • 28. Earth surface potential induced by ground-return current of HVDC Links ƒ?? Part II: Numerical analysis and its applications,X. Wen; W. Li; H. Lu; Z. Pan,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, No.8 Eastlake Rd South, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 China",2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE).
  • 29. Effect of dimension on ground grid design in MEA's power distribution substation,A. Phayomhom; S. Sirisumrannukul; T. Kasirawat; A. Puttarach,"Power System Planning Department, Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), Bangkok, Thailand",2014 International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON).
  • 30. Effect of earth grid conductor spacing on the safety criteria of substation earthing,S. D. Buba; W. F. Wan Ahmad; M. Z. A. Ab Kadir; C. Gomes; J. Jasni; M. Osman,"Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia",2014 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon).
  • 31. Effect of Earth Wire Connections on Hazard Limitation at 'Often Frequented Towers',N. Ullah; H. Griffiths; A. Haddad; A. Ainsley,"Cardiff University, UK",Proceedings of the 41st International Universities Power Engineering Conference.
  • 32. Electromagnetic coupling from overhead power lines to fences - experimental evaluation and case studies; P.H. Pretorius, A.A. Burger, Paper P605, Cigré 2009, 6th Southern Africa.
  • 33. EMI study on down-conductors spacing,Y. Jaeseok; L. Jaewook; P. Hyunsung,"KEPCO Engineering & Construction Company, Inc., 2354 Yonggudaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-713, Republic of Korea",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 34. Evaluation of Ground Potential Rises in a Commercial Building During a Direct Lightning Stroke Using CDEGS,C. H. Lee; C. N. Chang; J. A. Jiang,"Dept. of Syst. & Naval Mechatron. Eng., Nat. Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan",IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 35. Evaluation of lightning induced magnetic fields inside reinforced concrete buildings,C. Miry; E. Amador; P. Duquerroy; E. Bachelier; D. Prost; F. Issac,"EDF R&D, Moret sur Loing, France", 2013 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XII SIPDA).
  • 36. External Lightning Protection and Grounding in Large-Scale Photovoltaic Applications,C. A. Charalambous; N. D. Kokkinos; N. Christofides,"Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility.
  • 37. Fault diagnosis of substation grounding grid based on the signal distance function,L. Shang; W. Liang,"School of Electrical & Control Engineering, Xi'an University of Science & Technology, Xi'an, China",2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT).
  • 38. Ground Layer Depth and the Effect of GPR,A. Puttarach; N. Chakpitak; T. Kasirawat; C. Pongsriwat,"Department of Electrical Engineering, ChiangMai University, 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200. Phone: +66-89-755-0020, Fax: +66-53-895-202, Email: Arm", 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society Conference and Exposition in Africa – PowerAfrica.
  • 39. Grounding impedance calculation of steel monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines in intertidal zone,Z. N. Zheng; J. G. Wang; Y. D. Fan; X. Q. Li; M. Zhou; J. C. Wu; B. Q. Zhang; S. C. Wang,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, China",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 40. Grounding impedance characteristcs of gravity foundations of offshore wind turbines,Z. N. Zheng; J. G. Wang; Y. D. Fan; X. Q. Li; M. Zhou; J. C. Wu; B. Q. Zhang; S. C. Wang,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University",International Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2015).
  • 41. Grounding system design improvement by compression ratio and ground rod methods in power distribution substation,N. Rugthaicharoencheep; A. Phayomhom,"Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon, Bangkok, Thailand, 10800",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 42. How to design an effective earthing system to ensure the safety of the people,M. Nassereddine; J. Rizk; A. Hellany,"University of Western Sydney, Australia",2009 International Conference on Advances in Computational Tools for Engineering Applications.
  • 43. Impact and management of stray current on DC rail systems,P. Aylott; I. Cotton; C. A. Charalambous,"CAPCIS Intertek, United Kingdom",2009 4th IET professional Development Course on Railway Electrification Infrastructure and Systems.
  • 44. Impact and management of stray current on DC rail systems,P. Aylott; I. Cotton; C. A. Charalambous,"Intertek CAPCIS, United Kingdom",5th IET Professional Development Course on Railway Electrification Infrastructure and Systems (REIS 2011).
  • 45. Impact and management of stray current on DC rail systems,P. J. Aylott; I. Cotton; C. A. Charalambous,"Intertek CAPCIS, United Kingdom",6th IET Professional Development Course on Railway Electrification Infrastructure and Systems (REIS 2013)
  • 46. Impact of electric potential due to faulted overhead ground wire on distribution system equipment,B. Rittong; S. Sirisumrannukul,"Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KMUTNB, Bangkok, Thailand",2016 IEEE International Conference on Power and Renewable Energy (ICPRE).
  • 47. Impact of energization current on the safe design of distribution substation earth grid,D. Buba; W. F. Wan Ahmad; M. Z. A. Ab Kadir; C. Gomes; J. Jasni; M. Osman,"Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia",2014 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon).
  • 48. Impact of Photovoltaic-Oriented DC Stray Current Corrosion on Large-Scale Solar Farms' Grounding and Third-Party Infrastructure: Modeling and Assessment,C. A. Charalambous; A. Demetriou; N. D. Kokkinos,"Power Syst. Modelling (PSM) Lab., Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 49. Impact of split factor value on the safe design of distribution substation earth grid,S. D. Buba; W. F. W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; C. Gomes; J. Jasni; M. Osman,"Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 50. Impulse impedance tests on laboratory model earth electrode,N. A. Idris; H. Ahmad; M. N. Isa,"TM Res. & Dev. Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia",2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics.
  • 51. Inclusion of Field-Solver-Based Tower Footing Grounding Models in Electromagnetic Transient Programs,A. Holdyk; B. Gustavsen,"SINTEF Energy Res., Trodheim, Norway",IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 52. Induced voltage and current computation for different HVPL operating conditions,L. Czumbil; D. Stet; D. D. Micu; V. Topa; L. Ancas,"Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania",International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE.
  • 53. Induced voltage on pipeline located close to high voltage lines due to electromagnetic induction,A. S. AlShahri; M. T. N. Dinh; N. K. C. Nair,"Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand",2014 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC).
  • 54. Influence of Ground Potential Rise on Recloser Control Broad in Distribution Lines,K. Withironprasert; N. Tamwong; S. Chusanapiputt; S. Phoomvuthisarn,"Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, 51 Cheum Sampan Rd., Nong-jok, Bangkok 10530, Thailand",2006 International Conference on Power System Technology.
  • 55. Influence of power line on ground line and communication line during short circuit fault,Zhibin Zhao; Lin Li; Xiang Cui; Changzheng Gao,"Sch. of Electr. Eng., North China Electr. Power Univ., Hebei, China", 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37559).
  • 56. Influence of soil and conductor of ground grid on safety of the grounding system,Lin Li; Xiang Cui; Tiebing Lu; Haoliu Yin,"North China Electr. Power Univ., Hebei, China",IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Symposium Record (Cat. No.00CH37016).
  • 57. Influence of soil structures on corrosion performance of floating-DC transit systems,C. Charalambous; I. Cotton,"Sch. of Electr. Eng. & Electron., Univ. of Manchester",IET Electric Power Applications.
  • 58. Lightning impulse characteristic of weak curren grounding system of the high-speed railway roadbed section,X. Luo; G. Wu; X. Zhang; X. Cao; F. He,"School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China", 2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 59. Lightning propagation through the Earth and its potential for methane ignitions in abandoned areas of underground coal mines,T. Novak; T. J. Fisher,"Dept. of Civil & Environ. Eng., Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa, AL, USA",Conference Record of the 2000 IEEE Industry Applications Conference. Thirty-Fifth IAS Annual Meeting and World Conference on Industrial Applications of Electrical Energy (Cat. No.00CH37129).
  • 60. Lightning propagation through the Earth and its potential for methane ignitions in abandoned areas of underground coal mines,T. Novak; T. J. Fisher,"Virginia Polytech. Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA, USA", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 61. Lightning safety calculation of a Yangtze River Bridge,H. Yue; J. Wang; X. Wang; K. Huang; B. Wang; Y. Zhang; L. Cai,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China",2011 7th Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning.
  • 62. Lightning transient characteristics of a 500-kV substation grounding grid,C. Tian; Y. Zhang; L. Cai; J. Wang; S. Huang; Y. Wang,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China",2011 7th Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning
  • 63. Measurement and prediction of microshock currents and voltages in an HV laboratory,Y. Ahmed; S. M. Rowland,"The University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1 QD, UK",2007 International Power Engineering Conference (IPEC 2007)
  • 64. Method research on measurement with short leads of grounding resistance of grounding grids,C. Xu,"Dept. of Autom. Eng., Tianjin Univ. of Technol., Tianjin, China", 2014 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation.
  • 65. Modeling for Preliminary Stray Current Design Assessments: The Effect of Crosstrack Regeneration Supply,C. A. Charalambous; I. Cotton; P. Aylott,"Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 66. "Modeling of Currents on Long Span, Dielectric Cables on HV Overhead Lines",S. M. Rowland; K. Kopsidas; I. Cotton,"Sch. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Manchester Univ.", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 67. Modelling and management of microshocks under high voltage transmission lines,A. Gunatilake; S. M. Rowland; Z. D. Wang; N. L. Allen,"Sch. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Manchester Univ., UK","Proceedings of the Fifty-First IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, 2005".
  • 68. Modelling Linesmen's Potentials in Proximity to Overhead Lines,Y. Ahmed; S. M. Rowland,"Univ. of Manchester, Manchester, UK",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 69. Novel Formulation to Determine the Potential on the Soil Surface Generated by a Lightning Surge,D. S. Gazzana; G. A. D. Dias; R. C. Leborgne; A. S. Bretas; M. TellÇü; D. W. P. Thomas; C. Christopoulos,"Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil",IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.
  • 70. Novel Simulation Method to Quantify Induced Voltage & Current between Parallel or Partially Parallel Proximity AC Transmission Circuits,"X. Wu, D. Meisner, V. Simha, R. Wellman",CIGRE US National Committee  2015 Grid of the Future Symposium,CIGRE.
  • 71. On the earthing of overhead power lines - A case study; P.H. Pretorius, A.A. Burger, C. Curtis, Paper P601, Cigré 2009, 6th Southern Africa.
  • 72. On the electric field performance of an overhead conductor real time monitoring system (RETMOS II); A. A. Burger, P. H. Pretorius , I. Ferreira, N. Mahatho, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg.
  • 73. On the surge impedance of 765 kV double circuit towers - validation and application; P.H. Pretorius, D. Muftic, L. Peter, C. Van Der Merwe, Paper P602, Cigré 2009, 6th Southern Africa.
  • 74. On the tower footing resistance of micropile anchors; P. H. Pretorius, C. J. Semmelink, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg.
  • 75. Optimal ground grid design for large EHV substations with auto-transformer,X. Wu; V. Simha; R. J. Wellman,"Station Engineering Design Standards, American Electric Power, Gahanna, OH, United States",2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting.
  • 76. Optimum compression ratio on ground grid design in MEA's power distribution substation,A. Phayomhom; S. Sirisumrannukul; T. Kasirawat; A. Puttarach,"Power System Planning Department, Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), Bangkok, Thailand",2014 International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON).
  • 77. Power frequency electromagnetic environment evaluation of Zhongguancun Software Park near transmission lines,Chen Shuiming; Li Lianbo; He Jinliang,"Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China","TENCON '02. Proceedings. 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers, Communications, Control and Power Engineering".
  • 78. "Powerline earthing design in compliance with the latest Australian Standard on Overhead Lines, AS/NZS 7000:2010",M. Mohseni,APD Power,2014 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC).
  • 79. Prediction of Metallic Conductor Voltage Owing to Electromagnetic Coupling Using Neuro Fuzzy Modeling,A. H. Al-Badi; S. M. Ghania; E. F. EL-Saadany,"Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 80. Research on effects between grounding module and grounding eesistance,Weiming Zhou; Guangning Wu; Xiaobin Cao; Shenglin Li,"School of Electrical Engineering at Southwest Jiaotong University, China",2008 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition.
  • 81. Research on new grounding technology of transmission line tower in Karst area,S. Liu; W. Sima; T. Yuan; Q. Yang,"State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, China",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 82. Research on the Effects and Evaluation Method of Transmission Line Tower Grounding Collection Caused by DC Current,C. Wu; W. Yang; K. Zhu; X. h. Dong; B. Liu; X. s. Wen; L. Lan,"Sichuan Electr. Power Res. Inst., Chengdu, China", 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference.
  • 83. Safety analysis for grounding system of two neighbouring substations in MEA's power distribution system,A. Phayomhom; S. Sirisumrannukul,"Power System Planning Department, Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), Bangkok, Thailand",2014 International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON).
  • 84. Safety design planning for ground grid of two neighbouring distrubution substation in MEA's power system,C. Amornkul; A. Pruksanubal; A. Phayomhom,"Electr. Eng. Dept., King Mongkut's Univ. of Technol. North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Bangkok, Thailand","2014 11th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON)".
  • 85. Safety design planning of ground grid for outdoor substations in MEA's power distribution system,A. Phayomhom; S. Sirisumrannukul; T. Kasirawat; A. Puttarach,"Power System Planning Department Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) Bangkok, Thailand","ECTI-CON2010: The 2010 ECTI International Confernce on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology".
  • 86. Safety-limit curves for earthing system designs: appraisal of standard recommendations,H. Zhao; H. Griffiths; A. Haddad; A. Ainsley,"High Voltage Energy Syst. Group, Cardiff Univ., UK","IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution".
  • 87. Sensitivity Analysis for Influential Parameters in Simulations of Induced Voltage between Close Proximity AC Transmission Circuits,"X. WU, D. MEISNER, V. SIMHA, R. WELLMAN", CIGRE US National Committee 2016 Grid of the Future Symposium,CIGRE.
  • 88. Shielding design study for a large plant using a 3-D graphics-based lightning interception surface rendering and intersection method,S. Baron; R. Southey; Qizhang Xie; S. Fortin; F. P. Dawalibi,"Safe Engineering Services & Technologies ltd, Montréal, Canada",2012 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 89. Simulation of grounding networks in the SES CDEGS software,A. Szczepa?ski,"Department of Electrical and Computer Fundamentals, Rzeszow University of Technology, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959, Poland", 2015 Selected Problems of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (WZEE).
  • 90. Simulation of grounding networks in the SES CDEGS software,A. Szczepa?ski,"Department of Electrical and Computer Fundamentals, Rzeszow University of Technology, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959, Poland", 2015 Selected Problems of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (WZEE).
  • 91. Stray Current Calculation and Monitoring in DC Mass-Transit Systems: Interpreting Calculations for Real-Life Conditions and Determining Appropriate Safety Margins,C. A. Charalambous; P. Aylott; D. Buxton,"University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1678 Cyprus, Cyprus",IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine.
  • 92. Stray current control in DC mass transit systems,I. Cotton; C. Charalambous; P. Aylott; P. Ernst,"Sch. of Electr. Eng. & Electron., Univ. of Manchester, UK", EEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
  • 93. Stray Current DC Corrosion Blind Spots Inherent to Large PV Systems Fault Detection Mechanisms: Elaboration of a Novel Concept,A. Demetriou; D. Buxton; C. A. Charalambous,"A. Demetriou is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, of the University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1687, Nicosia, Cyprus (email: andreasdemetriou@live.com)",IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 94. Stream gas pipeline in proximity of high voltage power lines. Part I ƒ?? Soil resistivity evaluation,D. ?teœ; L. Czumbil; D. D. Micu; V. ½opa; L. Ancas,Technical University of Cluj-Napoca,2012 47th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC).
  • 95. Stream gas pipeline in proximity of high voltage power lines. Part II ƒ?? Induced voltage evaluation,L. Czumbil; D. ?teœ; D. D. Micu; V. ½opa; L. AncŽŸ?,Technical University of Cluj-Napoca,2012 47th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC).
  • 96. Study on electromagnetic influence of 750kV AC transmission lines on multiple buried pipelines,Sun Haifeng; Wang Pei; Chang Haojing; Ai Xiancang; E. Tianlong; Su Bonian; Zhu Rongrong; Li Zhihong; Wang Chunfeng,"Department of Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China",2016 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC).
  • 97. Study on the affection of ground grids with varied aspect ratio on frequency characteristics of grounding impedance,C. Hu; D. Wen; Y. Sun; K. Liu; Z. He; L. Zhou,"Equipment Status Evaluation Center, Gansu Electric Power Research Institute, Lanzhou, China", 2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT).
  • 98. Study on the frequency characteristics of grounding resistance in non-uniform soil regions,C. Hu; D. Wen; Y. Sun; Y. Wu; Y. Chen; L. Zhou,"Equipment Status Evaluation Center, Gansu Electric Power Research Institute, Lanzhou, China",2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT).
  • 99. Study on the influence factors of power transformer DC magnetic bias,W. Xu; Y. Wu; F. Wu; X. Shen; J. Ruan,"School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China",12th IET International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2016).
  • 100. Study on Wind Farm Grounding System,V. T. Kontargyri; I. F. Gonos; I. A. Stathopulos,"Sch. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Nat. Tech. Univ. of Athens, Athens, Greece",IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.
  • 101. Substation Grounding Grid Analysis with the Variation of Soil layer depth Method,A. Puttarach; N. Chakpitak; T. Kasirawat; C. Pongsriwat,"Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 Thailand" ,2007 IEEE Lausanne Power Tech.
  • 102. Substation Grounding Studies with More Accurate Fault Simulation Strategy and SI / MI Method,X. Wu; V. Simha; Y. Xue; R. Wellman, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.
  • 103. Technique for safety design of grounding grid in MEA's power distribution substation,A. Phayomhom; T. Lantharthong; N. Rugthaicharoencheep,"Department of Power System Planning, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Bangkok, Thailand, 10110",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 104. The finite element model of electric-thermal dynamic coupling about HVDC grounding,J. Li; L. Guo; Y. Li,"School of Electrical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China",2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE).
  • 105. The impacts of OCS Mast short-circuit on signal cables in railway yard,F. He; X. Cao; H. Han,"School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China",2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP).
  • 106. The impulse grounding impedance computation in HVDC transmission line tower,L. Tian-wei; X. Yang; Z. Yu-ming,"Electr. Power Res. Inst., CSG, Guangzhou, China", 2013 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC).
  • 107. The method study of fault diagnosis for grounding grid adopting the near degree,Penghe Zhang; Junjia He; Zeguan Deng,"College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China(430074)",2010 International Conference on Power System Technology.
  • 108. Time domain full wave PEEC circuit model for buildings lightning protection system,Xin Liu; Pengfei Wang; Guishu Liang,"Key Laboratory of Power Equipments Defense of Hebei Province, North China Electric Power University, P.O. Box 19, Baoding, 071000, China",2016 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC).
  • 109. Transient Simulation of Conductive Coupling of HV Transmission Line with Underground Pipelines,B. Tan; X. Wen; Z. Pan; W. Yang,"Sch. of Electr. Eng., Wuhan Univ., Wuhan", 2009 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference.
  • 110. Transmission lines design to meet community requirements during constructions,M. Nassereddine; J. Rizk; A. Hellany; M. Nagrial; G. Nasserddine,"Sch. of Comput., Eng. & Math., Univ. of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia",MELECON 2014 - 2014 17th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference.
  • 111. Use of wooden structures to reduce electric field under EHV transmission lines,A. Gunatilake; Z. Wang; I. Cotton,"Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Electron., UMIST, Manchester, UK","39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference, 2004. UPEC 2004".
  • 112. Wind farm earthing,N. Hatziargvriou; M. Lorentzou; N. Jenkins, IEE Half-Day Colloquium on Lightning Protection of Wind Turbines (Digest No: 1997/303).