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CURRICULUM VITAE
Dr. FARID P. DAWALIBI, Eng., M.Sc., Ph.D.

1 INTRODUCTION

Dr. Dawalibi, member of the Quebec Order of Engineers and senior member of the IEEE, has extensive experience in several fields related to power system and lightning protection grounding and safety, pipeline electrical interference and mitigation studies, and power equipment manufacturing and installation. Both a scientific researcher and an active industry consultant, he is well acquainted with the electrical power industry and the considerations involved when electrical power lines share right-of-way space with other utilities, such as gas transmission lines.

Dr. Dawalibi earned his B.Sc.A., Electrical Engineering degree at St. Joseph University, affiliated to University of Lyon, and his M.Sc.A. and Ph.D. Electrical Engineering degrees respectively, at École Polytechnique affiliated to University of Montreal. He worked successively for the Shawinigan Engineering Company Limited of Montreal (1972-1977) and Montel Inc. (Sprecher & Shuh: 1977-1978) on various projects involving power system and power equipment design and performance evaluation. During all this time, Dr. Dawalibi conducted research on the effects of soil on power networks and grounding, publishing in IEEE Transactions and contributing material to IEEE Power Society working groups. In his capacity as member of IEEE Working Group 78.1, Substation Grounding, he has made important contributions to ANSI/IEEE Standard 80, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding, a basic reference on electrical safety used throughout North America by electrical utility engineers in the design of substation grounding.

In 1978, Dr. Dawalibi co-founded SES, a company which specializes in and conducts significant R&D work in the area of power system grounding and safety, electromagnetic inductive and conductive interference, and all other related electrical interaction effects between power systems, soil and proximate nonenergized metallic facilities. Since that time, he has been responsible for the engineering activities of the company, including the development of specialized software and internally funded as well as externally sponsored R&D projects. These include the development of the ECCAPP software package (analysis of electromagnetic and conductive coupling effects between transmission lines and nearby pipelines) during a research project sponsored jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.). Dr. Dawalibi has also given many engineering seminars to electrical and pipeline utility engineers and provided continuous telephone support to the engineering departments of a number of utilities in Canada, the United States, and Saudi Arabia.


2 EDUCATION

  • Ph. D., Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal; thesis on grounding problems of power systems.
  • M. Sc. A., Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal.
  • B. Sc. A., Electrical Engineering, Ecole Superieure d’Ingenieurs, affiliated to Universite de Lyon.

3 GROUNDING AND SAFETY

3.1 Research

The following are representative externally-funded research projects performed under the direction of Dr. Dawalibi in this area: For a more complete list of projects visit the following link: http://www.sestech.com/Services/EngineeringProject.htm

  • Exxon Subsea Pipeline Electric Heating System Analysis, SES Report Prepared for Exxon/Mobil, F. P. Dawalibi, Y. Li, S. Fortin, May 2012. Parametric analysis of subsea pipeline heating systems and leakage current distributions as a function of heating system, energization and anode configurations.

  • LADWP HVDC Sea Electrode Study, SES Report Prepared for Burns & McDonnell (for Los Angeles Department of Water & Power), F. P. Dawalibi, J. Liu, March 2012. Study of the impact of an HVDC electrode in the sea and transferred potentials to nearby gas pipeline. The sensitivity of the results to the method used to represent the sea bed was examined: e.g., infinitely long sloped plane versus trapezoidal volumes.

  • National Grid Underground Safety Analysis, SES Report Prepared for National Grid USA Service Company, F. P. Dawalibi, R. D. Southey, S. Tee, N. Mitskevitch, April 2009. Detailed parametric analysis of underground cable systems and safety of personnel during load and fault conditions, for different contact situations, cable types, vault types and safety bonding scenarios. Different ground mat designs for switch handles of overhead distribution lines were also compared.

  • Safety Grounding Practices for Personnel Working on Distribution Systems Up to 50 kV, SES Report Prepared for Canadian Electricity Association, CEA, F. P. Dawalibi, R. D. Southey, J. Goulet, and P. W. Hotte, December 1997.

  • Safety Grounding for Personnel Working on Distribution System Up to 50 model - Phase II: Computer Modelling and Parametric Analysis (Canadian Electrical Association, completed in January 1995). Extensive parametric analysis, involving thousands of computer simulations, in which a variety of electric distribution systems were modelled during fault, load, and induction (from other lines) conditions to determine pole-top and ground-level voltages achieved by different temporary safety grounding methods. A wide range of system parameters and safety grounding parameters were studied.

  • Grounding Grid Performance During Lightning Discharges (Canadian Electrical Association, completed in April 1994). Position paper summarizing the state-of-art in the analysis and design of substation grounding systems subjected to lightning strikes or high frequency current discharges and formulating recommendations and a prioritized list of items requiring further research work.

  • Analysis of Grounding Systems in Soils with Hemispherical Layering (Florida Power and Light Company, completed in September 1992). Computer software was developed for the modelling of substation grounding systems in or near hemispherical soil heterogeneities. This work was motivated by FPL's usual practice of replacing partially or totally the topmost native soil layers with improved fill.

  • Simplified Rules for Grounding Customer-Owned High Voltage Substations (CEA, completed in April 1989). A 22-month project (CEA Project 249-D-541) which resulted in the development of simplified rules for grounding customer-owned high voltage substations and new proposed wordings for Section 36 (Subsections 300 to 310 on grounding) and associated Appendix B notes of Part I of the Canadian Electrical Code (CSA Standard C22.1). The AUTOGRID software package also resulted from this project.

  • Transmission Line Grounding (EPRI, completed in 1982). Major 26-month project (EPRI Project 1494-1) on transmission line performance during power frequency and lightning faults; resulted in production of widely used GATL software package and two-volume reference book on this subject entitled Transmission Line Grounding. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, USA.

  • Canadian Electrical Association (CEA). Project on the effectiveness of substation grounding and the surface detection of buried damaged conductors.

  • Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd. (SES, Montreal). Cooperative effort with Dr. Leonid Grcev of the University of Skopje, Yugoslavia. Work on a unified approach for calculating the low and high frequency, and the transient performance of a network of buried conductors.

3.2 Industry Experience: Utilities and Private Companies

The following are a sample of the numerous projects conducted by Dr. Dawalibi in the field of grounding and safety:

  • Keewatinohk Converter Station Grounding Study, Manitoba Hydro (July 2016)
    Grounding study of 230 kV AC / 500 kV DC converter station, connected to five 230 kV transmission lines and one 500 kV HVDC transmission line, in northern Manitoba. Challenges included frost line at 4.5 m depth and hard clay till encountered at shallow depths.

  • Wildcat Point Compressor Station Gas Yard Grounding Study, HGA (July 2015)
    Grounding study for compressor station being installed next to generating plant and high voltage switchyard, with interconnection of grounding grids. Included modeling of interactions of cathodic protection system of gas yard with adjacent 500 kV switchyard and other plant grounding and identified locations with peak leakage current densities.

  • West Springfield GIS Upgrade Grounding Study, Eversource Energy (May 2015)
    Analysis of performance of existing GIS grounding system, mitigation design study, field work (FOP & touch voltage). Challenges included surrounding urban infrastructure, fossil fuel power plant on site, rail siding and gas pipeline on site, next to Connecticut River.

  • Wildcat Point Plant Grounding Study, White Oak Power Constructors (April 2015)
    Conceptual grounding study for existing power plant and switchyard, during construction phase of new adjacent plant and switchyard, and for new plant and switchyard post-construction.

  • Black & Veatch – EMF & Grounding Design Study, Black & Veatch (December 2014)
    Stray voltage study of fish barrier near Chicago, Illinois, operated by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Field work and computer modeling of stray voltages associated with the barrier. Development of mitigation options for personnel protection and minimization of transfer of potentials to surrounding infrastructure.

  • Russett East and Tipton GIS Grounding Studies, Baltimore Gas & Electric Co. (March 2014)
    Conceptual grounding studies of two GIS, one operating at 115 kV, the other at 230 kV. Detailed modeling of buried cables, GIS three-phase elements for correct calculation of induced circulating currents, cable splicing vaults and overhead transmission lines. The required GIS ground connections were also studied.

  • Constitution Street GIS Grounding Study, Baltimore Gas & Electric Co. (Sept. 2013)
    Conceptual grounding study of urban GIS, supplied by buried 115 kV cables, accounting for interactions with surrounding metallic infrastructure.

  • AEP Sorenson Substation Grounding Study, American Electric Power (September 2013)
    Grounding study of 2,300 ft long 765 kV / 345 kV / 138 kV substation. Faults studied at multiple locations throughout station, accounting for circulating currents. Demonstrated potential savings on the order of $1 M with cost-effective mitigation approach.

  • Grounding Study for LCRA Ferguson Replacement Project, Fluor Enterprises Inc. (July 2012)
    Grounding study of a large power plant next to a lake. Studied grounding performance with and without supplementary grid in lake, using finite-volume soil structures to represent water, soil and rock. Modeled 138 kV transmission line system up to 39 miles away (11 circuits), in order to find worst case fault location and benefit as much as possible from fault current split provided by conductive shield wires.

  • High Ridge Substation GIS Grounding Design and Substation Test & Analysis, Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (May 2011)
    Study of the optimal method to ground a 230 kV GIS to the grounding system of an existing air-insulated substation. Included the modeling of the phase conductors and bus enclosures and associated inductive coupling and provided training in field testing of the substation: soil resistivity measurements, fall-of-potential test, touch and step voltage measurements.

  • Habshan-5 Utilities & Offsites: Grounding and Lightning Shielding Study, Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. (December 2010)
    Lightning shielding design study for utilities & offsites areas of 2 km x 2 km Habshan-5 gas development project. Grounding study as well for the entire plant, for 132 kV and 220 kV faults at the 4 high-voltage substations on site. Study also of resistance versus solid grounding for 132 kV transformers at this site.

  • Riel Substation Grounding Study, Manitoba Hydro (December 2010)
    Riel Station is a 230kV/500 kV power station Manitoba Hydro is planning to build. In addition to several 230 kV and 500 kV AC power lines, 500 kV DC lines are also planned to be connected to the station. The station is extensive, about 1700m by 800m, and is located near an extensive system of water pipes, which must be considered in the calculation of earth potential gradients and transferred potentials. The objective of the study was to design a satisfactory grounding system, which ensures the safety of personnel and the integrity of the equipment at the station under fault conditions, accounting for contingency conditions and seasonal variations (freezing and thawing of soil). It was found that accounting for inductive coupling between overhead buswork and the grounding grid reduced the cost of the grounding system by millions of dollars.

  • Suncor Voyageur Upgrader Project (VUP) Grounding Study, Suncor (January 2009)
    Modeling of a 1 mile x 1 mile oil sands site and two offsites, with 15 substations ranging from 34.5 kV to 260 kV, two overhead 260 kV circuits, buried and overhead 34.5 kV circuits, cable/pipe racks and a good number of pipelines, whose through-earth and magnetic field interactions were studied, in designing a conceptual grounding system for the entire VUP meeting IEEE Standard 80. It was found that consideration of the grounding provided by supporting infrastructure (piles and interconnecting structures) tremendously reduced the need for any additional buried grounding conductors.

  • Marble River Wind Farm – Clinton/Ellenburg 230 kV/34.5 kV Substation Grounding Analysis, E/PRO Engineering & Environmental Consulting, LLC (September 2008)
    A wind farm with 109 turbines, 2.1 MW each, was studied. Conceptual grounding designs for the main 230 kV/34.5 kV substation and for the turbines were evaluated, accounting for collector line grounding and current return in the 230 kV transmission line static wires. A total of 74 representative faults were simulated on the 34.5 kV collector system and at wind turbines, in addition to faults at the main 230 kV/34.5 kV substation. Frozen, partially frozen and unfrozen soil conditions were considered. Recommendations were made with respect to the most cost-effective grounding, accounting for the interactions of all wind farm components.

  • Herblet Lake Performance & Measurements Analysis, Manitoba Hydro (October 2007)
    This study involved the verification of the grounding of a 230 kV substation located in an area with high soil resistivities (on the order of 3000 – 6000 ohm-m near the surface and 700 ohm-m below that). Detailed soil resistivity measurements were made in both winter and summer and considered in the analysis. Various contingencies, such as the loss of a line or loss of ground rods, were also examined. It was found that the high surface soil resistivities, while resulting in greater touch and step voltages, also resulted in allowable touch and step voltage limits, ultimately providing a satisfactory solution to an otherwise difficult problem.

  • Paca & Orchard Substation Grounding Study, Black & Veatch Corporation (October 2007)
    This study involved two urban 115 kV substations with GIS and 60 kA fault levels. SES demonstrated that the buried cable ground conductor/concentric pipe return paths and the metallic water system surrounding the substations reduced grounding requirements significantly despite the high fault current levels. SES also demonstrated the effectiveness of the unipolar Wenner method for soil resistivity testing.

  • Comparison on the Performance of Various Capacitor Bank Grounding Topologies during the Capacitor Bank Back-to-Back Switching Operation, Hydro-Quebec (January 2006)
    The Industry Standard IEEE C37.99-2000 implicitly recommends the use of peninsula grounding as the preferred method to ground the neutrals of capacitor banks in high voltage substations. This study compares the overall performance of Hydro-Quebec 735/230 kV substation grounding system designed according to the conventional design consisting of reasonably dense ground conductors and the Peninsula method in the 230 kV capacitor banks areas and concludes that the conventional design offers superior performance both from a safety and EMI perspective.

  • Neutral to Remote Earth Voltage Analysis Jefferson Transmission Line Project (American Transmission Company, September 2006)
    This project is an investigation of the effects of transmission lines on nearby distribution line neutral wires and thus on voltage transferred to cow contact points on dairy farms. The project involves creating computer models, comparing predictions with measured results of existing systems, and parametric analysis to determine how future systems should be designed in cost-effective manner, with minimal impact on cows (and thus minimal financial losses to dairy farmers and utilities obliged to compensate these farmers and solve the stray voltage problems after the fact). Two existing transmission lines and one planned line are being used for this study.

  • Benton Lake Telephone Lines Harmonic Interference Analysis (Xcel Energy, Inc, August 2006)
    Harmonics on 34.5 kV feeders supplied by wind generators appear to be a probable cause of noise problems reported by telephone subscribers in the Lake Benton, Minnesota area. The objective of this study is to attempt to characterize the harmonics associated with these wind generators, evaluate the extent to which these harmonics can induce noise in nearby telephone cables, and explore practical and cost-effective methods that can be implemented to mitigate this interference.

  • Analyse comparative de la performance de différentes topologies de prises de terre lors d’enclenchements de batteries de condensateur (Hydro-Québec, January 2006)
    Le but de ce projet est d’analyser et de comparer la performance de différentes topologies de prises de terre proposées dans l’industrie électrique pour la mise à la terre de batteries de condensateurs lors de manœuvres d’enclenchement.

    Différent topologies de prises de terres ont été suggérées au fil des années pour accomplir la mise à la terre de batteries de condensateurs. Dans le passé, ces différentes topologies ont été comparées en utilisant des méthodes empiriques dont l’applicabilité était restreinte. Le but de ce projet est d’analyser et de comparer la performance de ces topologies lors de manœuvres d’enclenchement de batteries de condensateurs en utilisant différentes méthodes applicables à plusieurs scénarios.

  • AC Mitigation Study on Derwa San Ramon Valley Recycled Water Pipeline (Derwa, September 2005)
    Interactions of a water distribution system with nearby transmission and distribution lines, both overhead and underground, and nearby substations are creating safety concerns for a municipal water utility. Plumbers working on the water system have received shocks and refuse to carry out heavy maintenance work. Preliminary investigations have indicated that voltages in excess of 20 V occur at some locations, with most of the power produced by a 180 Hz source.

  • St-Leon Grounding Analysis (Manitoba Hydro, June 2005)
    Grounding study performed on 230 kV/66 kV station, including detailed modeling of station (buried and overhead structures), nearby gas facility, gas pipelines, and 230 kV towers with overhead ground wires. Soil resistivity interpretation, ground impedance interpretation, station safety study and transferred potential analysis. Both frozen and non-frozen soil conditions studied. Simulation of ground impedance test, at 70 Hz and 1 kHz.

  • Assurant Kingston Call Center – Grounding Design Review (Eaton Electrical Services & Systems, June 2004)
    Review and computer analysis of the Assurant Kingston Call Center.

  • Dorsey Station Grounding Analysis (Manitoba Hydro, April 2004)
    This study, carried out in close collaboration with Manitoba Hydro, made use of detailed testing of soil resistivities and temperatures, as a function of depth, from the autumn of 2003 through the spring of 2004: winter and early spring soil conditions represent worst-case conditions that must be considered in areas where the soil freezes beneath grid depth. Ground impedance measurements of this 600 m x 1000 m station were interpreted with HIFREQ, which reproduced inductive and conductive coupling encountered during the testing, based on a detailed model of the grounding grid, test leads, and 12 transmission lines (230 kV and 500 kV). This study also examined the sensitivity of grounding grid performance to ground rod density. Protection of a railway spur entering the substation and an associated main track was also studied.

  • HVDC Substation Grounding Analysis (Jiangsu EPRI, March 2004)
    In this project, SES modeled 78 substations (500 kV, 220 kV, and 110 kV), associated transmission lines, and other infrastructure, in order to investigate problems associated with dc circulating currents flowing into the substation transformer primary windings through the neutral ground connections. SES also studied ac circulating currents during fault conditions in this major station, which is supplied directly by the Three Gorges Dam project. A key result of this study was the development of a new conceptual grounding method, which greatly reduces dc circulating currents and, thereby, wear on the station transformer(s).

  • DongShanQiao Substation Grounding Analysis (Jiangsu EPRI, October 2003)
    Initial scope of work called for a conductive analysis of the grounding system of the 220 kV area of the DongShanQiao substation, based on measured soil data, fall-of-potential ground impedance measurement data and fault current data provided by JiangSu EPRI. Project later expanded to a full analysis of the entire grounding system of this station, including the grounding performance of the 500 kV area, circulating currents, and control cables performance, etc.

  • Henday Station Grounding Analysis (Manitoba Hydro, April 2003)
    Safety evaluation of Henday AC/DC Converter Station in Northern Manitoba during fault conditions: interpretation of soil resistivity data and fall-of-potential impedance measurements; modelling of 138 kV and 230 kV lines, nearby substations, hydro-electric plant, and railway spur.

  • Radisson Station Grounding Analysis (Manitoba Hydro, April 2003)
    Safety evaluation of Radisson AC/DC Converter Station in Northern Manitoba during fault conditions: interpretation of soil resistivity data and fall-of-potential impedance measurements; modelling of 138 kV and 230 kV lines and railway spur.

  • J. H. Kerr Hydroelectric Plant Grounding Analysis (Overstreet Electric Co., March 2003)
    Analysis of hydro-electric plant and 115 kV switchyard grounding, as a function of soil resistivity and grid conductor integrity, in view of increases in fault current duty.

  • Grounding Study of As-Built Grid of ANP Hays Power Plant (Alstom Power Inc., August 2001)
    Re-design of power plant grounding to accommodate low resistivity surfacing material.

  • Conceptual Grounding Design for Pokemouche Plant 69 kV Substation (Atlantic Fine Yarns Inc., August 2001)
    Conceptual grounding design for a small 69 kV distribution substation: grid design, remote grounding bed design, and testing procedure provided.

  • Grounding Verification – El Paso Merchant Power Plant (Kvaerner Process, July 2001)
    Review and modification of the grounding design for a power plant built on a mountain top in Brazil and feeding a 345 kV system.

  • Review of Diablo Canyon Dry Cask Facility Grounding Analysis (Pacific Gas & Electric Co., June 2001)
    Review of grounding study associated with new spent fuel disposal unit associated with nuclear power plant and its 500 kV switchyard.

  • Midlothian Power Plant Grounding Study (Alstom Power Inc., April 2001)
    Determination of grounding upgrades required for a power plant in very low resistivity soil; also determination of potentials transferred along two 24” gas pipelines connected to the plant and running parallel to a 345 kV line for approximately three spans outside the plant.

  • Elk Hills Power Project – Ground Fault Impact Analysis (Merchant Power Engineers and Constructors, April 2001)
    Determination of electrical potentials transferred by a power plant to a nearby oil well and reduction thereof with the improvement of the overhead ground return path associated with the associated 230 kV transmission line.

  • Ceredo Generating Station Grounding Study (AEP Pro Serv, Inc., April 2001)
    Grounding was designed to mitigate potentials transferred to 16” and 36” pipelines during fault conditions by a power plant spanning the easement of these two pipelines. Suitable mitigative measures for a neighboring compressor station were also designed.

  • Brandon Combustion Turbine Grounding Model (Teshmont Consultants Inc./Manitoba Hydro, March 2001)
    Grounding improvements obtained from interconnecting a generating plant with two nearby substations were studied; grounding for a new combustion turbine plant was designed, accounting for variations in soil structure as a function of season.

  • Earth Potential Transfer Study of ANP Blackstone Power Plant (Alstom Power, March 2001)
    This projet consisted in a study of earth potentials transferred outside a large power plant in high resistivity soil. Difficult soil conditions made it necessary to model the local electricity distribution system, water pipes, and transmission lines in order to demonstrate that the power plant was not transferring greater potentials than the previously existing electrical power system.

  • Suncor Millennium Project – Area 86 Extraction Grounding Study (SNC – LAVALIN Inc./SUNCOR, January, 2001)
    A new pipeline and extraction plant construction project associated with oil sands mining required a grounding study for 72 kV substations powering electric shovels and an AC interference mitigation study for pipelines running parallel to the 72 kV transmission lines. The safety requirements were quite stringent: limit the ground potential rise of all metallic structures associated with mining equipment to the ANSI/IEEE Standard 80 fibrillation threshold applicable for early spring conditions, with wet mud over frozen soil.

  • Border Station Grounding Study (Teshmont Consultants Inc./Manitoba Hydro, January, 2001)
    Difficult grounding conditions for a 115 kV switchyard in Flin Flon, Manitoba made it necessary to design a remote grounding system and associated dedicated overhead ground wires. Both conductive and inductive components of the fault current split were considered and showed that the proposed method would be successful.

  • Project 1800, Division 6, Frederick P. Griffith, Jr. Water Treatment Plant – Grounding Study (Fairfax County Water Authority, October, 2000)
    Concern over transferred potentials from a 230 kV substation built to supply power to a water treatment plant initiated this study, whose objective was to examine isolation options between the substation and the plant and to design suitable grounding. Consideration of the local electrical distribution system showed that the distribution neutral reduces GPR values to levels much lower than those initially expected.

  • Tubular Steel Distribution Pole Study (Southern California Edison Co., September, 2000)
    Plans to replace wood distribution poles by steel structures raised safety concerns. SES conducted a detailed parametric analysis of ground level safety; also of pole GPR values and clearing times as a function of system voltage, soil resistivity and customer density, presence or absence of 4th wire, and other such parameters. Two surveys of grounding specialists throughout North America were also conducted regarding grounding and bonding practices of distribution systems.

  • GPR Study of Northport Power Station (Keyspan Energy, August, 2000)
    This project consisted of a study of electrical potentials transferred through earth during fault conditions by a power plant on Long Island, NY, to a trans-Atlantic communications cable landing station.

  • ANP HAYS Grounding and Lightning Protection Conceptual Design (ABB Alstom Power, completed November 1999). Conceptual design of the grounding grid and determination of earth surface insulating requirements to limit touch and step voltages to satisfactory levels during a 345 kV phase-to-ground fault. Performed the associated conductor ampacity, soil resistivity measurement interpretation, ground potential rise, touch and step voltage, and safety limit calculations for power system 60 Hz fault currents.

  • Paiton Private Power Project - Phase 1: Evaluation of Existing Ground Grid Documents (Edison Mission Energy, October 1999). This project involved the development of a satisfactory safety evaluation technique for large power plants, based on, in this case, the largest coal-fired power plant in South-East Asia. This power plant, consisting of two GIS units, is part of a series of 3 power plants located on the coast of the Island of Java in Indonesia, all sharing the same seawater intake and discharge structures and all connected to the same switchyard, operated by the local utility. Together, the three power plants occupy a land area of approximately 1 km x 0.5 km. The measured impedance (by others) of the grounding grid was significantly higher than the value predicted by the engineering calculations and SES was therefore invited to review the situation and make recommendations.

  • Grounding Study for Blackstone Project (ABB Power Generation, August 1999) This projcct involved the development of a grounding methodology for power plants in high resistivity soil environments. Blackstone Power Plant is a 1200 ft x 700 ft gas-fired power plant located in New England, where rock is to be found at shallow depths and where grounding is notoriously difficult. At this site, measured resistivities were exceptionally high (on the order of 8,000 – 11,000 ohm-m) and available fault currents were high as well (on the order of 29 kA). To compound the problem, a thin layer of low resistivity soil was to be placed at the surface, in many areas of the plant, to encourage grass to grow and act as a barrier for run-off, which would otherwise allow soil erosion at the boundaries of the plant. This low resistivity soil decreases acceptable touch and step voltage limits.

  • Grounding and Mitigation Study of SCE Carson Substation/PPSI Meter (Southern California Edison, June 1999). This project involved a study of the compatibility of an oil pumping station with a high voltage electric substation. The question was: how could one safely build and operate an oil pumping station in the corner of a 66/16 kV electric substation in such a way that no excessive touch and step voltages occurred either in the pumping station or along the associated oil pipelines during fault conditions in the substation. To further complicate matters, one of the associated oil pipelines was to run along the entire length of the substation, underneath its grounding grid. In addition, pipeline corrosion considerations made it unthinkable to directly connect the pipeline system to the substation grounding grid. Nobody involved had ever heard of such a problem being addressed in the past.

  • Grounding and Lightning Study of 230 kV Transmission Lines TL202/206 (Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, completed May 1999). Study of two parallel 230 kV transmission lines with no overhead shield wires. These lines have a history of tripping together during lightning strikes. Considered the existing grounding configuration of two adjacent transmission line towers and computed the stress voltages on both towers during lightning strikes. Investigated various grounding mitigation techniques and predicted the change in the stress voltages and tower coupling/connectivity between lines.

  • Elmhurst Capacitor Fault Modeling and Analysis (Commonwealth Edison Company, completed January 1998). Following some switching operations of 33 kV capacitor banks energized from the tertiary windings of a 345 kV/138 kV auto transformer at the Elmhurst substation, some capacitor units fail and a 33 kV phase-to-phase fault evolves into a phase-to-phase-to-ground fault. This fault event is followed by an internal 345 kV transformer fault leading to the destruction of the transformer. Study to provide ComEd with an accurate computer model of the capacitor bank faults to allow the analysis of various fault cases. Mitigation measures were proposed and examined.

  • SCE&G Lyles Substation Grounding Study (South Carolina Electric & Gas, completed June 1997). Review of 230 kV substation grounding design in light of increased fault current levels and new design methods: soil resistivity, grounding system impedance, and touch and step voltage measurements in a suburban substation. Adjacent gas storage facilities, most influential portions of municipal water system, and transmission and distribution lines associated with the substation modeled.

  • Namchoonchun Gas Insulated Substation Grounding Analysis (Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., completed November 1996). Engineering analysis and technology transfer: how to perform a grounding study of a gas insulated substation.

  • Analysis of Stress Voltages and GPR Levels During a Fault at the BAN 11 Site (American Personal Communications, completed September 1996). Study of ground potential rise and transferred potentials associated with PCS (personal communications system) stations connected to antennas mounted on high-voltage transmission line towers during fault conditions. Study considered effect of distribution line feeder neutral providing path from PCS unit to distribution system grounding and telephone company facility. Demonstrated that expensive fiber optic links are not necessary for protection.

  • Waugh Chapel Substation Grounding Study (Baltimore Gas & Electric Company, completed June 1996). Evaluation of adequacy of 500 kV/230 kV/115 kV substation grounding design for increased fault current levels. The study included soil resistivity, grounding system impedance, touch and step voltage measurements; measurement interpretation; computer modeling of system, including a 0.5 mile x 0.25 mile grounding grid and 17 transmission line circuits.

  • Analysis of Electric Transients During Capacitor Switching at Skokie Substation (Commonwealth Edison Co., completed October 1995). Time and frequency domain analysis of capacitor switching events at a 345 kV switchyard in order to replicate conditions causing equipment failures. Development of modeling methodologies and technology transfer to ComEd personnel. Successful simulations produced and mitigative measures developed.

  • Seaholm Electric Substation Grounding Study (City of Austin, Texas - Electric Utility Department, completed June 1994). Computer modelling of extensive water pipe network and transmission line system associated with electric power plant and substation. A complex water pipe system was modelled to a radius of five miles from the power plant under study in order to accurately determine touch and step voltages and propose cost-effective remedial measures. Five substations and the associated 69 model circuits were also modelled. Training and customized power system grounding manual provided to City of Austin personnel.

  • Study of Grounding System of Les Cèdres Hydroelectric Complex (Hydro-Québec, completed October 1993). Evaluation of performance of existing grounding system of hydroelectric plant, including computer modelling of all buried conductors associated with the complex and detailed measurements of soil resistivity, grounding system impedance, touch and step voltages. Electrode spacings up to 3,800 feet were used. All measurements were made with frequency-selective equipment to screen out power system frequency noise.

  • Point Lepreau Grounding Interference Study (New Brunswick Power Corporation, completed July 1993). Analysis of interference effects associated with grounding system of Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Generating Station: site visit and recommendations.

  • Analysis of Grounding System Interconnections at PEPCO Generating Stations (Potomac Electric Power Company, completed in November 1992). Study of two proximate generating stations experiencing damage to equipment due to excessive differences in potential between the grounding systems of the two stations. This study demonstrated need for multiple low impedance interconnections in order to reduce GPR differences to acceptable levels.

  • Monroe Street Power Plant Grounding Study (Washington Water Power Company, completed in July 1992). Study of power plant grounding system, including penstock, dam and pedestrian promenade in order to determine ground resistance and touch voltages.

  • IPL Bethune Station Grounding Study (Interprovincial Pipe Line Company, completed in November 1990). Study of compressor station, including 72 model substation, with associated grounding system, pipelines and conduits. The GPR and current distribution in all conductors (grounding system, pipelines and conduits) were computed. It was found that the extensive pipeline system contributed significantly to the quality of the grounding of the compressor station and no additional mitigation was required due to the resulting low GPR levels.

  • Andytown Substation Capacitor Bank Study (Florida Power and Light Company, completed in 1989). Study of performance of the peninsular grounding scheme used for the capacitor bank ground systems, for both power frequency faults and transients caused by capacitor bank switching, including the effects of in-rush currents.

  • Lightning Interference Analysis of Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant (Florida Power and Light Company, completed in May 1989). Testing and evaluation of the adequacy of the Turkey Point plant grounding system with respect to interference caused by direct lightning strikes.

  • CIDA. Study of local effects of earth currents flowing from capacitive coupling supply grounds during normal operating conditions. Alternating 60 Hz current was considered to examine its effects on safety and thermal stability of soil in the immediate vicinity of the Capacitive Coupling Supply unit (CCS). The study included an exhaustive computerized bibliographical search and the development of computer models which were used to analyze several problems involving various realistic soil characteristics and ambient climatic conditions.

  • Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (1972-1973). Grounding studies, transmission line electromagnetic interference and power distribution design for B.P. Alaska 69 model power distribution system in Prudhoe Bay.

  • Analysis and Design of Henday Substation Grounding, Manitoba-Hydro, Winnipeg, Canada.

  • Analysis and Design of Grounding Systems for Stations 418 and 109, Rochester Gas and Electric, New York, USA.

  • Conceptual Analysis, Design and Measurements for Grounding System at Mac-Millan Bloedell, Powell River Division, Powell River, British Columbia, Canada.

  • Analysis of Vancouver Center SF6 Substation Ground, B.C. Hydro, Vancouver, Canada.

  • Measurements and Measurement Result Analysis of Bell Canada Lightning Ground System, City of Dorval, Quebec.

  • Frequently consulted by firms specializing in electrical failure and interference investigations; prime consultant to Electro-Protection Inc., a failure/incident engineering investigation firm in Montreal.

3.3 Computer Software

Computer software developed by Dr. Dawalibi for power system grounding and safety studies include the following programs:

GATL
(LINPA-RESIST-GTOWER-PATHS): Grounding Analysis of Transmission Lines. Software developed for EPRI.
AUTOGRID
Analysis and automated design of small distribution substations. Software developed for CEA.
CDEGS
(Current Distribution, Electromagnetic interference, Grounding, & Soil structure analysis) expert software system consisting of several engineering application packages which are used to perform computerized analysis and design of electrical grounding systems, pipeline interference and mitigation analyses, and a variety of other engineering studies involving electrical power systems. This software consists of the following programs: RESAP, MALT, MALZ, TRALIN, SPLITS, HIFREQ, FCDIST, FFTSES, SICL, SIRPS. A partial list of users of this software is included in Section 6 of this document.
RESAP Analysis of soil resistivity measurements to obtain multi-layer soil models using algorithms based on convolution and filter theory.
MALT Analysis of AC and DC behaviour of grounding systems, cathodic protection studies.
TRALIN Transmission Line Performance : Interference, Line Parameters, and Electric Field Gradients.
HIFREQ Analysis of the high frequency and transient performance of a network of buried and above-ground conductors.
MALZ Analysis of electromagnetic fields radiated by leaky conductors located in a dispersive medium.
SPLITS Short-circuit and inductive interference analysis (originally developed for ARAMCO).
FCDIST Simplified short-circuit current distribution analysis.
FFTSES Fast Fourier Transform software.

3.4 Professional Societies & Standards Working Groups

Dr. Dawalibi has been an active member of the following IEEE committees and task forces:

  • Working Group 81, Resistivity and Resistance Measurements: secretary since 1980

  • Working Group 78.1, Substation Grounding

  • Working Group on Transmission Lines

In recent years, Dr. Dawalibi has contributed to making extensive revisions of IEEE Standards 80 and 81 and has written substantial new portions of these documents.

Dr. Dawalibi has participated actively in a variety of conferences dealing with electrical system grounding and safety, including the First International Symposium on Electrical Shock Safety Criteria, Toronto, Canada, September 7-9, 1983. Experts from electrical utilities, universities and research laboratories all over the world attended this symposium to discuss problems associated with electrical shock and safety. This event was sponsored by Ontario Hydro, the Electrical Power Research Institute and the Canadian Electrical Association.

Memberships:

  • NACE International

  • Canadian Society of Electrical Engineers

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Senior Member

  • Quebec Order of Engineers

  • Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba


4 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY STUDIES

4.1 Research

Dr. Dawalibi was project manager and principal investigator of a major 34-month joint EPRI/A.G.A. (Electric Power Research Institute/American Gas Association) Project RP742-4/PR-176-510 on transmission line electromagnetic inductive and conductive interference effects on nearby pipelines during power frequency faults; resulted in production of the ECCAPP software package and reference book on the subject.

During years of internally and externally funded research at SES, Dr. Dawalibi and his research team have developed state-of-the-art computer software permitting the accurate evaluation of interference effects of electrical power lines on pipelines. Some of these computer programs are listed below.

4.2 Industry Experience: Utilities and Private Companies

Dr. Dawalibi was principal investigator in the following representative projects undertaken by SES in which electrical interference in pipelines was a problem. For a more complete list, visit the following link: http://www.sestech.com/Services/EngineeringProject.htm

2016
Piedmont Natural Gas Pipeline Mitigation Impact on Duke Energy Infrastructure EMI Study
Study of impact of 13-mile length of mitigated natural gas pipeline on nearby generating station and associated structures, as a result of induced voltages from nine nearby 230 kV and 115 kV transmission lines.
2016
Bechtel Stonewall Project – Validation Field Measurements – Bechtel Power Corporation
Field testing and analysis of measurements with respect to grounding design at power plant: soil resistivity measurements to large pin spacings, grounding impedance (FOP) measurements, touch voltages measurements.
2016
Eustis Florida EMI Study – Duke Energy
AC interference study: examination of interference levels on nearby gas pipeline and railway as a function of expansion of 69 kV and 230 kV system, for different line construction scenarios.
2016
EMI Mitigation Design Study for FGT 12” Gandy Blvd Relocation Project – Duke Energy
AC interference mitigation design study for 12" directionally drilled high pressure natural gas pipeline installed parallel to 115 kV and 230 kV underground circuits, over distance of roughly 3 miles, in very low resistivity soil. AC corrosion concerns dominated this design effort, which applied novel mitigation design techniques to achieve acceptable current density levels in a brackish water environment. Power plant at one of the joint-use corridor, 230 kV / 115 kV substation at the other, and surrounding transmission system and urban infrastructure were also modeled.
2015
Red Deer Area EMI Study – McLennan Ross LLP
Railroad EMI study as expert witness.
2014
NorSpan AC Mitigation Evaluation – LS Power Development LLC
Study of planned 500 kV transmission line route and possible influence on adjacent pipelines. Input for initial planning stages of project.
2013
AltaLink-ATCO Simulations – Electromagnetic Interference Study – AltaLink Management Ltd.
An inductive study about the induced voltage on the pipeline and an evaluation of a potential shock hazard on a generic model representing a pipeline in parallel with the HVDC line during a fault.
2013
MBCR-MBTA Railway EMI Study: Phase II – National Grid
Detailed modeling of a number of mitigation options, including a special arrester manufactured by Dairyland Electrical Industries Ltd., which fires at 33.23 V RMS and can carry a fault current of 4.5 kA RMS.
2013
Maine Power Reinforcement Project – 345 kV Transmission Line Impact Study – Burns & McDonnell (for Central Maine Power)
This is an analysis of the impact of (Phase I) and design of mitigation for (Phase II) a 247-mile 345 kV transmission line system and nearby 115 kV transmission lines on parallel pipelines (on the order of 125 miles) and railways (on the order of 10 short parallel sections or crossings). The impact of the new 345 kV lines on lower voltage transmission lines (115 kV and 37 kV), when de energized, is also being examined. This very large project has required custom automation of the CDEGS software package. Furthermore, it has required the development of a methodology to correct soil resistivity measurements for distortion introduced by bare metallic structures buried along the joint-use corridor.
2012
BP Skarv Swivel EMI Interference Study – BP/Aker Solutions
Evaluation of induced voltages and currents between power cables and other types of cabling associated with a floating production and offloading vessel.
2012
Greater Springfield Reliability Project – Electromagnetic Interference Study – Northeast Utilities Service Company
Impact analysis and mitigation, as required, for 5 natural gas pipelines and 4 railways following or intersecting a planned 35-mile 345 kV transmission line and several 115 kV lines, to be built as part of the New England East-West Solution (NEEWS).
2011
MBCR/MBTA Transit System – AC Interference Investigation – National Grid
In the spring of 2008, MBCR, the agency operating the commuter rail for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (“MBTA”), notified National Grid of problems it was experiencing with its control and signal circuitry in the vicinity of Massachusetts Electric Company’s Ward Hill Substation. MBCR/MBTA believed these problems were associated with the close proximity of the 23 kV circuits running alongside two sets of tracks abutting on the substation property. MBCR/MBTA personnel reported various equipment failures that allegedly have resulted in operational delays for commuter trains. The main purpose of the study is to determine the magnitude of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) levels caused by the local electric distribution circuits on the railway system, based on detailed realistic computer models, during worst case steady state (load) conditions and phase-to-ground fault conditions and, if needed, determine mitigation measures that would be the most effective in reducing any excessive induced voltages and currents to acceptable levels.
2008
NRI 345 kV Line/ M&N Pipeline – Spectra Energy
Verification of as-built mitigation for M&N Pipeline, which runs parallel to the soon to be energized NRI 345 kV line in the State of Maine, U.S.A. Computer modeling and field testing of mitigation. Test procedures were devised to verify the performance of mitigation during both fault and steady state conditions. This involved measurements at approximately 100 sites, including one compressor station, 5 valve sites, approximately 70 test stations, and 30 additional mitigation connection locations.
2007
Benton Lake Telephone Lines Harmonic Interference Analysis – Xcel Energy
Interference mitigation study involving proposed 27-mile 115 kV transmission line and parallel telephone cables. Study included comparing computer model predictions and measured induced voltages associated with 34.5 kV collector lines from wind farms, running parallel to telephone cables. Excellent agreement was obtained. Effective mitigation for influence of 115 kV line was designed.
2007
GMCW 345 kV Line NEV Study – American Transmission Company
Study of mitigation methods to reduce neutral-to-earth voltages induced in 34.5 kV distribution underbuild (length of 3400 ft) and 12 kV buried distribution cable (parallel length of 3.4 miles), along 345 kV/138 kV transmission line.
2007
Neutral to Remote Earth Voltage Analysis – Jefferson Transmission Line Project: Phase II – American Transmission Company
This and the two following studies were undertaken in order to investigate methods to reduce undesirable voltages that could be induced in distribution neutral conductors by parallel transmission lines. The Jefferson project involved a planned 16-mile 138 kV transmission line, with distribution circuits running parallel to it for a total distance of approximately 6.5 miles. An extensive parametric analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effects of shield wire interruptions, continuous counterpoise, separation distance between circuits, phasing, phase unbalance, ground resistances, use of buried distribution feeder versus underbuild, changes in distribution neutral size, transmission line cross-sectional configuration, installation of a supplementary underbuild shield wire and bonding of a buried cable’s concentric neutral to the transmission line shield wire.
2007
Neutral to Remote Earth Voltage Analysis – North Randolph – Fox Lake – North Beaver Dam Transmission Line - American Transmission Company
A 1-mile underbuilt section of a distribution feeder neutral was instrumented and approximately voltages and currents measured for 52 different energization and connection configurations, such as the following: with the transmission line energized and de-energized; with the overhead distribution feeder in service and with it replaced by a buried feeder; with the customer neutrals isolated and connected to the primary neutral; with the feeder neutral isolated and connected to the remainder of the distribution system; with the neutral connected to the static wire by means of a temporary jumper at each end of the feeder and without the jumper; with the transmission shield wire interrupted at each end of the feeder and continuous. Good agreement was obtained between the computer model and the field data.
2007
Neutral to Remote Earth Voltage Analysis – Duplainville Transmission Line Project – American Transmission Company
A 138 kV transmission line was energized with both zero and positive sequence 65 Hz currents and computer model predictions of induced neutral current and neutral-to-earth voltage were compared with those measured with a dynamic signal analyzer. Given the urban environment and unknown customer grounding, computer model predictions matched measured data quite well. New methods of measuring steel pole ground resistances were also tested.
2007
Glenbrook – Norwalk Electromagnetic Interference Study – Northeast Utilities Service Companies
This AC interference mitigation study involved an 8.8-mile, double-circuit, 115 kV, buried, solid dielectric cable line running parallel to an electrified railroad, gas pipelines, and water pipes. SES’s mandate was to investigate the electromagnetic interference caused by the proposed 115-kV underground cables during load and fault conditions and to design appropriate corrective measures. By building a comprehensive electromagnetic interference model, including the mitigative influence of metallic infrastructure in the surrounding suburban area, SES demonstrated that no corrective were required.
2006
Bethel-Norwalk Extended Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis - NorthEast Utilities Service Company

Middleton-Norwalk Electromagnetic Interference Study - NorthEast Utilities Service Company & The United Illuminating Company

Sinistre de Pointe du Lac Suite à la Destruction d’une Conduite de Gaz par Interférence Electromagnétique - Gaz Metropolitan

Scoping Document for the Middleton to Norwalk Electromagnetic Interference Study - NorthEast Utilities & The United Illuminating Company

Progress Energy FGT Loop G Florida Rock Review
This project analyses the effect of the addition of a tap, an associated valve and a metering and regulating station, along with a substantial length of pipe to a large high pressure natural gas line subjected to ac interference.

It is known that AC interference along a large diameter natural gas main running parallel to high voltage transmission lines results in a pattern of pipe-to-soil voltages along the length of the pipeline, which are influenced by abrupt changes in magnetic field coupling between the overhead lines and the pipeline. These are typically brought about by deviations in the overhead line or pipeline routes, crossings between these, large load drops, fault occurrences, changes in static wire type, changes in soil resistivity, phase transpositions, and other such factors. On the other hand, the effects of taps and the associated aboveground structures at nearby metering stations, which can capture magnetic flux, while at the same time depressing pipeline ground resistance per unit length, have not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the performance of a system with and without such interfering factors, assess the magnitude of the discontinuities that they can produce, and determine what remedies can be applied.
2005
NRI 345 kV Line/ M&N Pipeline Maine – New Brunswick
Project for Duke Energy and Bangor Hydro in collaboration with Corrpro Companies to study the influence of the proposed Northeast Reliability Interconnect (NRI) 345 kV transmission line on the existing Maritimes & Northeast (M&N) pipeline, throughout the proposed joint-use corridor, known as the “Consolidated Corridor Re-Route,” which runs for a distance of approximately 86 miles, from Orrington Substation, in the State of Maine, to the Canadian Border, near Baileyville, Maine. The mandate of the authors was to create detailed computer models of the interacting utilities and explore, in a rapid and approximate manner, by what practical means voltages transferred to the pipeline could be maintained within satisfactory limits, during anticipated worst case steady state and short-circuit conditions. This was achieved by creating a custom, automated version of the Right-of-Way Pro software package.
2005
Atlantic-Delmar 60/115 kV Transmission Line Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis
As part of an AC interference study, prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric, between two 60 kV transmission lines and two railroad tracks, results from the Right-of-Way Pro and MultiFields software packages were compared and a parametric analysis was carried out. Induced voltages computed by the two software packages for similar models agreed reasonably well. However, the addition of nearby network of municipal water pipes and 12 kV distribution line neutrals in the HIFREQ model made it possible to demonstrate that induced voltages were significantly different than would otherwise have been expected: maximum variations of ±20% were observed between the two models, during worst case load conditions. For the parametric analysis, parameters such as ballast resistance, train position, train length, rail unbalance, track-connected equipment impedances, power line current unbalance, power line phase arrangement, and overhead ground wire connections were studied. It was found that for rail-to-rail voltages, the worst case ballast resistance is a function of the impedances of the track-connected equipment and does not occur, as intuition might have it, for the maximum ballast resistance. A new method of using an overhead ground wire to reduce AC interference during fault conditions, without a corresponding increase during load conditions, was developed.
2001
Salalah Gas Pipeline Project – Overhead Line / Pipe Parallelism Interference Effects and Mitigation Measures
AC mitigation design study carried out for Amran Establishment LLC/Dodsal & Co. LLC/Oman Gas Company SAOC. AC mitigation study involving two corridors shared by 132 kV circuits and a 24” gas pipeline, in Oman; total length of shared corridor is approximately 16 km.
2001
Woodward Mountain Wind Ranch AC Interference Study
AC mitigation design study carried out for Renewable Energy Systems. AC interference study of two 138 kV transmission lines connecting two 90 MVA substations to the West Texas power grid: a total length of approximately 11 miles of right-of-way and 8 pipelines.
2001
Suncor Millennium Project – Area 86 Extraction Grounding Study
AC mitigation design study carried out for SNC – LAVALIN Inc./SUNCOR. A new pipeline and extraction plant construction project associated with oil sands mining required a grounding study for 72 kV substations powering electric shovels and an AC interference mitigation study for pipelines running parallel to the 72 kV transmission lines. The safety requirements were quite stringent: limit the ground potential rise of all metallic structures associated with mining equipment to the ANSI/IEEE Standard 80 fibrillation threshold applicable for early spring conditions, with wet mud over frozen soil.
2000
Unbalance Study for Lockport-Lombard 345 kV and 138 kV Transmission Lines
AC mitigation design study carried out for ComEd. Projected heavy loading of 345 kV and 138 kV transmission lines sharing a common corridor would result in phase unbalance levels approaching fault tripping levels. An optimal phase transposition scheme was developed, minimizing phase unbalance with a minimal number of phase transpositions. New software was developed to allow this type of study to be performed very efficiently in future.
2000
Mitigation Review for Mokelumne Aqueduct No. 3 Seismic Upgrade and Underpass Construction
AC mitigation design study carried out for CH2M Hill Corp. SES had previously designed a mitigation system for the three Mokelumne Aqueducts in the Oakland, California area. It was recently decided to upgrade the supports of the largest aqueduct (an 88 inch diameter pipeline) to make it more resistant to earthquakes. Furthermore, it was decided to construct an underpass running beneath all three aqueducts. It therefore became necessary to evaluate how the associated displacement of the mitigation system would affect protection of the aqueducts from induced voltages due to an adjacent 500 kV transmission line; also, it was important to determine whether the underpass, made of reinforced concrete, would introduce electrical safety hazards of its own.
1999
PNGTS Pipeline Modeling Based on New Fault Data
AC mitigation design study carried out for Bechtel Corporation. Continuation of Project 315-00 performed during the period of April 1998 to July 1998. Investigation of effects of increased current levels on mitigation requirements. It was hoped that this would lead to further advances in mitigation design methods in the difficult soil conditions found in this area. The sponsor of this work, however, decided not to pursue the issue at this time, so only the initial work associated with predicting the interference levels associated with the increased current levels was performed.
1999
AC Mitigation Design Study for Town of Weir 10” Natural Gas Pipeline
AC mitigation design study carried out for Neel-Schaffer, Inc. Model the proposed 10” pipeline and nearby proposed 161 kV double-circuit transmission line connected to Red Hills facility in order to assist Neel-Schaffer in selecting an appropriate pipeline route. Two possible routes were provided to SES for a determination of what AC voltages would appear on the proposed pipeline for each route, during both maximum load and fault conditions on the transmission lines. Provided assistance in the selection of desirable soil resistivity measurement sites along the corridor; provided support in terms of equipment selection, measurement procedures, and review of the measurement data followed by feedback to the measurement crew (crew supplied by others). Interpreted the soil data and obtained an equivalent multilayer soil model for each measurement site.
1998
PNGTS Pipeline Mitigation Design Study
AC mitigation design study carried out for Bechtel Corporation. A 140-mile 24” natural gas line from Canada to the State of Maine, with two 12” laterals (total length of 16 miles) were modeled, along with over 20 transmission line circuits belonging to two utilities at voltages of 34.5 to 345 kV and 8 substations. Faults were automatically modeled at close intervals throughout the AC corridors.
1998
Mayakan Pipeline Mitigation Analysis
AC mitigation design support carried out for Bechtel Corporation and TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. A 700 km 24” natural gas pipeline in Mexico was modeled along with 15 transmission lines at voltages of 115 kV to 400 kV. By optimizing the design process and scrutinizing the design criteria, it was found that the length of gradient control wire required to ground the pipeline to achieve satisfactory AC interference levels could be reduced to approximately 1% of the total pipeline length, even though most of the pipeline was exposed to AC interference from the power lines.
1997
AC Mitigation Design Study for Hawiyah Gas Development Projects
AC mitigation design study carried out for Gulf Interstate Engineering Company (for Saudi Aramco). System under study comprised over 55 km of joint use corridor, shared alternately by 30” and 48” gas pipelines and 380 kV and 132 kV transmission lines. The transmission lines and gas pipelines were connected to power plants at the extremities of the joint use corridors. Foreign pipelines were modeled as well.
1996 EWEB McKenzie Substation Grounding System Analysis
Mitigation design study for water pipelines and associated wells in close proximity to 230 kV/115 kV/69 kV substation and associated transmission lines. Parallel exposure of 24” pipeline along distance of 3500 feet to 230 kV line.
1995
Great Man-Made River Authority (GMRA) Brown & Root
Study of AC voltages on 4m diameter, coal tar epoxy-coated, prestressed concrete aqueduct due to proximity to double-circuit 220 model transmission line, for 330 km parallelism. Objective was to determine minimum separation distance, accounting for highly varying multilayer soil structures with highly contrasting layer resistivity ratios.
1994 Columbia Gas Delmarva Pipeline Mitigation Study
Mitigation design study following Lenape Substation AC Interference Analysis (described below). Design study accounting for the multilayer soil structure at 16 measurement sites, in order to design gradient control wire and gradient control grid systems affording satisfactory protection of 20" gas pipeline with a minimum length of wire. Both normal operating conditions and fault conditions on the power system are of concern.
1994
Philadelphia Electric Company
Determination of AC interference levels (conductive and inductive) occurring on 20" gas pipeline during load and fault conditions, as a result of construction of 230 model/33 model substation over pipeline. A 16-mile parallelism, including 7 transmission and distribution lines circuits and two substations in close proximity to the pipeline were modelled. Transferred voltages and AC interference mitigation effects of two nearby water pipe were considered.
1993
East Bay Municipal Utility District
AC mitigation design study for three aboveground aqueducts parallel to one-mile length of 500 model transmission line (new construction). Mitigation design accounts for substantial soil subsidence. Conductive coupling from structures and inductive coupling both studied. Detailed measurements to verify performance of mitigation system, due to both conductive and inductive coupling: excellent agreement with computer predictions. Measurements also verified that mitigation system does not disturb cathodic protection system.
1993
Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline Company
AC interference study, mitigation design study for 4.2 mile length of 16" gas pipeline in Pennsylvania, subjected to interference from three 230 model transmission line circuits. Mitigation designed for both steady state and fault conditions.
1987-93
ARAMCO Services Company & Saudi Consolidated Electric Company
Analysis and mitigation of electrical interference in pipelines and communications cables near a 380 model/230 model transmission line network in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The computer model used to perform the study included 16 transmission line circuits, 19 pipelines, and 6 communication cables in a total 380 model transmission line right-of-way length of over 200 km. This project was performed in three phases:

Phase I: Interference problem evaluation during fault and steady state conditions, identification of sites requiring mitigation, and creation of computer model.

Phase II: Examination of alternative mitigation methods (i.e., "brute force" approach versus cost-effective gradient control grids). The proposed mitigation, as requested, was based on the "brute force" approach; i.e., an attempt to reduce touch voltage hazards by grounding the pipeline via low impedance grounds, rather than controlling earth surface potentials around exposed pipeline surfaces.

Phase III: Detailed soil resistivity measurements at mitigation sites in order to permit gradient control wire systems to be designed. SES provided a special measurement approach based on frequency-selective equipment for environments with significant 60 Hz noise. A parametric analysis was performed and has provided reference curves which show, for 18 different transmission line structure types and 18 different soil structures, worst case touch voltages as a function of clearance of a pipeline or communications cable from each transmission line structure type. Implementation of cost-effective mitigation.
1991
Algonquin Gas Transmission Company
Steady state/fault analysis and mitigation design for a 20" gas pipeline feeding a power plant and passing through an 11 mile length of right-of-way containing four 115 model and two 345 model transmission lines. The cathodic protection provided by the mitigation system was also studied.
1990-91
Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline Company
Steady state/fault analysis and mitigation design for a 13 mile length of pipeline right-of-way involving a 36" pipeline, a 24" pipeline, and 7 transmission line circuits varying in voltage from 34.5 model to 230 model.
1988-91
ANR Pipeline Company
Steady state/fault analysis and mitigation design for a 140 mile length of 24" pipeline parallel to two 345 model lines in the State of New York. The project initially involved training ANR Engineers in the use of the ECCAPP computer program for simulation of electrical interference effects in the right-of-way. SES later became involved directly in the study and provided expert witness services during the hearing of the Public Service Commission of the State of New York (Case No. 88-T-132). During this study, a new highly effective mitigation design was developed and it was demonstrated that some designs advocated at the time were unsound.
1990
Wyoming-California Pipeline Company
Steady state analysis and mitigation design for a 24 mile length of 30" pipeline parallel to two 345 model transmission line circuits and one 138 model circuit. This project involved the creation of a procedure for measuring soil resistivity which is virtually immune to 60 Hz noise from nearby AC power lines. This resulted in much more accurate modelling of soil structures in this interference study than was possible before.
1989
Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company
Steady state/fault analysis of an 11 mile length of 18" pipeline parallel to one 500 model and six 161 model transmission lines. All mitigation recommended for steady state and fault conditions was implemented in 1990.
1988
Algonquin Gas Transmission Company
Steady state/fault analysis of a 6 mile length of 12" pipeline parallel to two 13.8 model and two 115 model transmission lines.
1985
Alberta Power Limited
Conductive analysis of the effects of the Wapiti Electrical Substation, under power system fault conditions, on a nearby gas pipeline operated by Nova, an Alberta Corporation. The study determined the safe distances between the substation and pipelines.
1983
Trans-Canada Pipelines Inc
Inductive and conductive analysis and mitigation designs for the Trans-Quebec & Maritimes gas pipeline during power system faults on parallel Hydro-Quebec transmission lines and neighbouring electrical substations. Mitigation was developed and installed.
1983
Westcoast Transmission Company Limited
Electrified Railway Crossings of Westcoast Transmission's Grizzly Natural Gas Pipeline. Analysis, design and measurements of the electrical effects caused by the Quintette Coal railway electrical line on the buried pipeline. Mitigation was installed for steady state and fault conditions.

4.3 Computer Software

The following software was developed by Dr. Dawalibi or under his direction.

ECCAPP
Analysis of electromagnetic and conductive coupling effects between transmission lines and nearby pipelines. Software package developed jointly for EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) and A.G.A. (American Gas Association).
RIGHT-OF-WAY
Inductive interference analysis in complex systems of electric power lines and other utilities, such as railways, communications lines and pipelines
CDEGS (See Section 3.3).

5 POWER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING AND INSTALLATION

5.1 Industry Experience

Dr. Dawalibi's experience in the area of power equipment manufacturing and installation is summarized by the following projects:

1973-74
New Brunswick Electric Power Commission
Protection and relay coordination for the Coleson Cove project; transmission planning for siting and connecting two 600 MW nuclear units.
1973-74
Volta River Authority, Ghana
Transmission planning; load flow and stability studies.
1973-76
Transport Development Agency, Government of Canada
High-speed linear induction motor, theoretical and experimental studies. Dr. Dawalibi has issued two reports and a technical paper on this subject. The MOLIN computer program also resulted from this work.
1974-75
James Bay Hydroelectric Project
Responsible for load flow, motor starting, stability and grounding studies for the construction site of LG-2.
1974-75
Marine Industries Ltd
Project Engineer for feasibility study of new distribution system for Marine Industries Ltd., involving technical and economical comparison of alternatives: Extension of existing 120/ 13.8 MODEL substation Implementation of new 120/ 13.8 MODEL substation Implementation of new 25/ 13.8 MODEL substation.
1976-77
REM-Mirabel railway electrification project
Project Engineer for electrification feasibility study (25 model, 60 Hz) involving energy and power demand, voltage drop and shunt compensation, catenary selection, protection, electrical interference and grounding, and cost evaluation.
1978 Chromasco Ltd, Quebec, Canada
Automatic Load-Shedding Systems Design.
1978
Technical training
Two months extensive training in Europe (Switzerland, Germany and Belgium) in connection with Sprecher and Schuh HV and MV equipment for power systems (1978). Dr. Dawalibi has acquired wide technical and practical experience, mainly on load break switches, circuit breakers (oil air and SF6), cubicles and metering transformers.

5.2 Power System Computer Software

MOLIN Analysis of Linear Induction Motors With Compensated Windings.
MOSTA Motor Starting Analysis.
CHARG Analysis of High-Speed Electrical Trains, Station Loading, Catenary Voltage and Electrical Interference.

6 MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIENCE

  • Since 1978, Dr. Dawalibi has given dozens of analytical and engineering applications seminars on power systems grounding and electromagnetic interference effects throughout the world.

  • Sprecher & Schuh (1977):
    Manager of Technical Services Department at Montel Inc. – Sprecher & Schuh (1977). Main activities consisted of: coordination of technical information exchange between Sprecher & Schuh international subsidiaries and Montel Inc. in Canada; technical support to the sales and production department; writing technical papers and bulletins; technical analysis of competition products; technical meetings and conventions with utilities, universities and engineering societies.
    Performance study of Montel Inc. Medium voltage products (technical and sales strategy in M.V products, 1977).
    Technical training. Two months extensive training in Europe (Switzerland, Germany and Belgium) in connection with Sprecher and Schuh HV and NV equipment of power systems (1978).
    Dr. Dawalibi has acquired wide technical and practical experience, mainly on load break switches, circuit breakers (oil air and SF6), cubicles and metering transformers.
  • Junior engineer in training (1971), member of engineering team responsible for technical matters related to maintenance of commercial airplanes

  • Part-time teaching:
    From 1973 to 1975 he taught physics at several CEGEPS in the Montreal area (night courses).
    In 1976, he gave post-graduate courses (evenings) at Concordia University (Montreal, Quebec) in collaboration with Dr. Mukhedkar.
    From 1976 to 1978, he gave post-graduate evening courses at Université de Montréal (Montreal, Quebec).

7 PARTIAL LIST OF SES SOFTWARE LICENSEES

See the following link:
      http://www.sestech.com/Products/LicensedClients.htm


8 TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS AND REPRESENTATIVE STUDIES

Dr. Dawalibi has authored over 250 articles in reputable journals and has participated actively in over 200 major projects. See the following links for lists of publications and representative studies authored or co-authored by Dr. Dawalibi:
      http://www.sestech.com/Services/TechnicalPublications.htm
      http://www.sestech.com/Services/EngineeringProject.htm


9 TECHNICAL SEMINARS AND TRAINING

Dr. Dawalibi has been the primary instructor of over 200 technical trainings worldwide. The main topics that he taught are summarized at the following link: http://www.sestech.com/Training/Description.htm


10 EXPERT WITNESS

Dr. Dawalibi has acted as an expert consultant in over 20 legal court cases and served as an expert witness in about 8 cases of those.

 

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