Question What is the reference direction for the energization current in MALZ? What are my energization options in this program?
The reference direction for an ENERGIZATION bus in MALZ is into the grid: the energization current is assumed to enter the grounding grid from an outside, remote location. In the usual case, a positive number is specified; the current enters the grid at the specified location and discharges to ground through the grounding grid. You can also specify a negative number to model a case where current is drawn from the grounding grid and being carried away to a remote location. You can in fact specify an arbitrary phase angle for the energization current.
You can also specify several energization points. Many energization points can be connected to the same bus, in which case they share the energization current. More typically, each energization point will have its own bus, with its own current magnitude and phase. These different busses can therefore carry currents with totally arbitrary relative phases.
You can also specify Voltage energizations. These energizations represent a generator inserted in the network in the middle of the energized conductor. Again, an arbitrary magnitude and phase can be specified for the energization voltage.
Finally, you can specify an EMF (Electro-Motive Force) on any network conductor to simulate the effect of induction from other conductors (typically, conductors located above ground).